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Ap Bio Midterm
Terms in this set (83)
the starches and sugars present in foods
building blocks of proteins
organic chemical compound
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
In proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. In DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix.
A double sugar molecule made of two monosaccharides bonded together through dehydration synthesis.
A three dimensional polymer made of monomers of amino acids.
spherical, water-soluble proteins.
A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
Attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom.
a chemical reaction that adds water to a macromolecule in order to break its covalent bond; key component in digestion
A charged atom
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
A simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
Single sugar molecules glucose, fructose, galactose
Most abundant gas in the atmosphere
molecule that shares electrons equally and does not have oppositely charged ends
a complex organic substance present in living cells, especially DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain.
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
A molecule containing carbon that is a part of or produced by living systems.
The chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid
a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule
molecule with an unequal distribution of charge, resulting in the molecule having a positive end and a negative end
molecules composed of many monomers; makes up macromolecules
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
process of programmed cell death
water channel protein in a cell
a protein that transports substances across a cell membrane
A rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell
Cell organelle that aids in cell division in animal cells only
have a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or ions can use as a tunnel
An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
the process through which cells can detect and respond to signals in their environment
cyclic AMP (cAMP)
When a hormone binds to a receptor protein on the cell membrane of a target cell, the protein stimulates the production of a second messenger. ____ molecule then triggers various enzymes, leading to a specific cellular change.
A difference in the concentration
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infoldings of the cell membrane
A cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another.
A lipid covalently attached to a carbohydrate.
A protein with one or more carbohydrates covalently attached to it.
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
Chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another
Having a higher concentration of solute than another solution.
Having a lower concentration of solute than another solution
Proteins move ions across a membrane (hydrogen, sodium or potassium); requires ATP
when the concentration of two solutions is the same
A molecule that binds specifically to another molecule, usually a larger one.
An organelle containing digestive enzymes
magnification and replication of signaling
thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a space or organ
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
A double membrane that surrounds the nucleus in the cell
passageway for molecules into and out of the nucleus
a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule
A series of different molecules in a pathway are phosphorylated in turn, each molecule adding a phosphate group to the next one in line
A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.
A selectively-permeable phospholipid bilayer forming the boundary of the cells
A phenomenon in walled cells in which the cytoplasm shrivels and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall; occurs when the cell loses water to a hypertonic environment.
A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
An enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein, thus phosphorylating the protein.
site of protein synthesis
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes.
A small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecule or ion, such as calcium ion or cyclic AMP, that relays a signal to a cell's interior in response to a signal received by a signal receptor protein.
some substances can pass across them and others cannot
signal transduction pathway
A series of steps linking a mechanical, chemical, or electrical stimulus to a specific cellular response.
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes.
Process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
Contain a nucleus and other organelles that are bound by membranes.
Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
whiplike tails found in one-celled organisms to aid in movement
fluid mosaic model
model that describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane
Control center of the cell
A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Requires NO energy, Movement of molecules from high to low concentration, Moves with the concentration gradient
A type of endocytosis in which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells
surface area: volume ratio
Ratio of a cell's outside area to its internal volume.
An integral membrane protein that spans the phospholipid bilayer.
The pressure that water molecules exert against the cell wall
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