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170 terms

A&P Ch 4 Questions

STUDY
PLAY
Groups of cells that a similar in structure and function are called:

a) organ systems
b) organisms
c) organs
d) tissues
d) tissues
How many primary tissue types ar found the the human body?
4


Epithelium, connective, nervous and muscle tissue.
Edocrine and exocrine glands are classified as epithelium because they usually develop from epithelial membranes

True / False
True
Epithelial tissues can be classified according to cell shape.
___ epithelial cells are scalelike and flattened.

a) Columnar
b) Cuboidal
c) Squamous
d) Transitional
c) Squamous
This type of epithelium lines the digestive tract from stomach to anus.

a) simple cuboidal
b) simple columnar
c) stratified squamous
d) transitional
b) simple columnar
All connective tissue is derived from an embryonic tissue known as:

a) artilage
b) ground substance
c) mesenchyme
d) reticular
c) mesenchyme
All the following are examples of connective tissue except:

a) bones
b) ligaments
c) neurons
d) tendons
c) neurons
Blood is a type of connective tissue.


True / False
True
Of the Two major cell populations in nervous tissue, ___ are highly specialized to receive stimuli and conduct waves of excitation to all parts of the body.

a) neurons
b) neuroglial cells
a) neurons
How many basic types of muscle tissue are there?
3


Skeletal, cardiac and smooth tissue.
This type of muscle tissue is found in the walls of hollow organs. It has no striations, and its cells are spindle shaped. It is:

a) cardiac muscle
b) skeletal muscle
c) smooth muscle
c) smooth muscle
Why are histological sections stained?

a) to avoid microscopy artifacts
b) to preserve the specimen
c) to enhance contrast
d) to make the specimen thin enough to transmit light or electrons
c) to enhance contrast
Polarity is a property of all normal epithelial tissues.

True / False
True
The role of microvilli is to:

a) serve as a tissue boundary.
b) strengthen the tissue.
c) move substances along the tissue surface.
d) protect the tissue.
e) increase surface area.
e) increase surface area.
Epithelia tissues are innervated and usually vascularized.

True / False
False
Stratified squamous

a) Filtration
b) Stretching
c) Secretion and absorption
d) Protection from wear and tear
d) Protection from wear and tear

Thick membrane composed of several cell layers; basal cells are cuboidal or columnar and metabolically active; surface cells are flattened (squamous); in the keratinzed type, the surface cells are full of keratin and dead; basal cells are active in mitosis and produce the cells of the more superfical layers.

Protects underlying tissues in areas subject to abrasion.

Nonkeratinized type forms the moist lining of the esophagus, mouth, and vagina; keratinized varety forms the epidermis of the skin, a dry membrane.
Simple squamous

a) Filtration
b) Stretching
c) Secretion and absorption
d) Protection from wear and tear
a) Filtration

Single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm; the simplest of the epithelia.

Allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration in sties where protection is not important; secretes lubricating substances in serosae.

Kidney glomeruli; air sacs of lungs; lining of heart, blood vessals, and lymphatic vessals; lining of ventral body cavity (serosae).
Simple cuboidal

a) Filtration
b) Stretching
c) Secretion and absorption
d) Protection from wear and tear
c) Secretion and absorption

Single layer of cubelike cells with large, spherical central nuclei.

Secretion and absorption.

Kidney tubules; ducts and secretory portions of small glands; ovary surface.
Transitional

a) Filtration
b) Stretching
c) Secretion and absorption
d) Protection from wear and tear
b) Stretching

Resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal; basal cells cuboidal or columnar; surface cells dome shaped or squamouslike, depending on degree of organ stretch.

Stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine.

Lines the ureters, urinary bladder, and part of the urethra.
You observe a tissue that has cells of varying heights. At first glance, it appeas that the tissue has multiple cell layers, but upon closer investigation you see that all of the cells attach to the same basement membrane. What classification would you give to this epithelial tissue?

a) Transitional epithelium
b) Stratified columnar epithelium
c) Simple cuboidal epithelium
d) Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
e) Stratified squamous epithelium
d) Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Single layer of cells of differing heights, some not reaching the free surface; nuclei seen at different levels; may contain mucus-secreting cells and bear cilia.

Secretion, particularly of mucus; propulsion of mucus by ciliary action.

Nonciliated type in male's sperm-carrying ducts and ducts of large glands; ciliated variety lines the trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract.
A sebaceous (oil) gland of the skin must completely rupture to release its secretory products. Thus, this type of gland is considered to be a:

a) merocrine gland.
b) alveolar exocrine gland.
c) apocrine gland.
d) holocrine gland.
d) holocrine gland.
_______________ are important and common unicellular exocrine glands.

a) Alveolar exocrine glands
b) Apocrine glands
c) Goblet cells
d) Tubular exocrine glands
e) Holocrine glands
c) Goblet cells
Which of the following is true of mucin?

a) It is a hormone found in mucus.
b) It is a water-soluble salt secreted by goblet cells.
c) It is an enzyme secreted by mucous cells.
d) It is a complex glycoprotein found in mucus.
d) It is a complex glycoprotein found in mucus.
Which of the following is not a type of connective tissue?

a) Bone tissue
b) Cartilage
c) Blood
d) Nervous tissue
d) Nervous tissue
Collagen is:

a) a substance that forms delicate networks around blood vessels.
b) a fibrous elastic material that allows certain connective tissues to resume their original length and shape upon being stretched.
c) a protein designed to help tissues retain fluids for tissue cushioning.
d) a gel-like substance that is found in the extracellular matrix of certain connective tissues.
e) a fibrous protein that provides tensile strength to certain connective tissues.
e) a fibrous protein that provides tensile strength to certain connective tissues.
Osteoblasts

a) Bone formation
b) Formation of cartilage
c) Formation of fibers
d) Blood cell formation
e) Body's defense system
a) bone formation
Hematopoietic stem cells

a) Bone formation
b) Formation of cartilage
c) Formation of fibers
d) Blood cell formation
e) Body's defense system
d) Blood cell formation
Chondroblasts

a) Bone formation
b) Formation of cartilage
c) Formation of fibers
d) Blood cell formation
e) Body's defense system
b) Formation of cartilage
Fibroblasts

a) Bone formation
b) Formation of cartilage
c) Formation of fibers
d) Blood cell formation
e) Body's defense system
c) Formation of fibers
White blood cells

a) Bone formation
b) Formation of cartilage
c) Formation of fibers
d) Blood cell formation
e) Body's defense system
d) Blood cell formation
Which of the following is a role of connective tissue?

a) Transportation of bodily substances
b) Hormone production
c) Sensory detection
d) Energy production
a) Transportation of bodily substances
Macrophages:

a) are cells that cannot wander through the body; they must remain fixed in a given tissue.
b) release antibodies during inflammation.
c) are phagocytic cells.
d) are the same as mast cells.
c) are phagocytic cells.
The best classification of adipose tissue is:

a) a dense connective tissue.
b) an osseous connective tissue.
c) a fibrous connective tissue.
d) a loose connective tissue.
d) a loose connective tissue.
All connective tissues arise from a common embryonic tissue.

True / False
True
Neurons are cells that are involved in:

a) structural support.
b) insulating the body.
c) responding to stimuli.
d) forming muscle tissue.
c) responding to stimuli.
You observe a muscle that has intercalated discs, and contracts under involuntary conditions. What type of muscle must this be?

a) Cardiac muscle
b) Skeletal muscle
c) Smooth muscle
d) Uterine muscle
a) Cardiac muscle
The skin is a ____________ membrane.

a) synovial
b) serous
c) mucous
d) cutaneous
d) cutaneous
The first step in tissue repair is:

a) fever.
b) inflammation.
c) organization.
d) regeneration.
b) inflammation.
All of the body's organs are derived from three primary germ layers. Which of the primary germ layers can produce epithelial tissues?

a) Endoderm only.
b) Ectoderm only.
c) Mesoderm only.
d) Ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm can all give rise to epithelial tissues.
d) Ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm can all give rise to epithelial tissues.
Connective tissue

a) Support
b) Regulation/control
c) Covering/lining
d) Movement
a) Support
Epithelium tissue

a) Support
b) Regulation/control
c) Covering/lining
d) Movement
c) Covering/lining
Muscle tissue

a) Support
b) Regulation/control
c) Covering/lining
d) Movement
d) Movement
Nervous tissue

a) Support
b) Regulation/control
c) Covering/lining
d) Movement
b) Regulation/control
Epithelium

a) Primary cell-type branches and possesses multiple cell processes extending from the nucleus-containing cell body; possesses two types of cells: neurons and supportive cells called glia

b) Avascular; associated with a basement membrane; apical and basal surfaces; great powers of regeneration; sparse extracellular matrix, innervated

c) Highly vascular; elongated cells; possess actin and myosin filaments; can possess striations

d) Large amount of extracellular matrix; originates from mesenchyme; possesses fibers
b) Avascular; associated with a basement membrane; apical and basal surfaces; great powers of regeneration; sparse extracellular matrix, innervated
Connective

a) Primary cell-type branches and possesses multiple cell processes extending from the nucleus-containing cell body; possesses two types of cells: neurons and supportive cells called glia

b) Avascular; associated with a basement membrane; apical and basal surfaces; great powers of regeneration; sparse extracellular matrix, innervated

c) Highly vascular; elongated cells; possess actin and myosin filaments; can possess striations

d) Large amount of extracellular matrix; originates from mesenchyme; possesses fibers
d) Large amount of extracellular matrix; originates from mesenchyme; possesses fibers
Muscular

a) Primary cell-type branches and possesses multiple cell processes extending from the nucleus-containing cell body; possesses two types of cells: neurons and supportive cells called glia

b) Avascular; associated with a basement membrane; apical and basal surfaces; great powers of regeneration; sparse extracellular matrix, innervated

c) Highly vascular; elongated cells; possess actin and myosin filaments; can possess striations

d) Large amount of extracellular matrix; originates from mesenchyme; possesses fibers
c) Highly vascular; elongated cells; possess actin and myosin filaments; can possess striations
Nervous

a) Primary cell-type branches and possesses multiple cell processes extending from the nucleus-containing cell body; possesses two types of cells: neurons and supportive cells called glia

b) Avascular; associated with a basement membrane; apical and basal surfaces; great powers of regeneration; sparse extracellular matrix, innervated

c) Highly vascular; elongated cells; possess actin and myosin filaments; can possess striations

d) Large amount of extracellular matrix; originates from mesenchyme; possesses fibers
a) Primary cell-type branches and possesses multiple cell processes extending from the nucleus-containing cell body; possesses two types of cells: neurons and supportive cells called glia
Simple Squamous

a) Single layer of cells that vary in height, with only the tall cells reaching the apical surface; nuclei at different levels; can contain goblet cells and cilia

b) Single layer of flattened scale-like cells

c) Multiple layers of cells with apical cells possessing the ability to change shape

d) Multiple cell layers whose apical cells are flattened

e) Single layer of cells that are taller than they are wide
b) Single layer of flattened scale-like cells
Pseudostratified columnar

a) Single layer of cells that vary in height, with only the tall cells reaching the apical surface; nuclei at different levels; can contain goblet cells and cilia

b) Single layer of flattened scale-like cells

c) Multiple layers of cells with apical cells possessing the ability to change shape

d) Multiple cell layers whose apical cells are flattened

e) Single layer of cells that are taller than they are wide
a) Single layer of cells that vary in height, with only the tall cells reaching the apical surface; nuclei at different levels; can contain goblet cells and cilia
Transitional

a) Single layer of cells that vary in height, with only the tall cells reaching the apical surface; nuclei at different levels; can contain goblet cells and cilia

b) Single layer of flattened scale-like cells

c) Multiple layers of cells with apical cells possessing the ability to change shape

d) Multiple cell layers whose apical cells are flattened

e) Single layer of cells that are taller than they are wide
c) Multiple layers of cells with apical cells possessing the ability to change shape
Stratified squamous

a) Single layer of cells that vary in height, with only the tall cells reaching the apical surface; nuclei at different levels; can contain goblet cells and cilia

b) Single layer of flattened scale-like cells

c) Multiple layers of cells with apical cells possessing the ability to change shape

d) Multiple cell layers whose apical cells are flattened

e) Single layer of cells that are taller than they are wide
d) Multiple cell layers whose apical cells are flattened
Simple columnar

a) Single layer of cells that vary in height, with only the tall cells reaching the apical surface; nuclei at different levels; can contain goblet cells and cilia

b) Single layer of flattened scale-like cells

c) Multiple layers of cells with apical cells possessing the ability to change shape

d) Multiple cell layers whose apical cells are flattened

e) Single layer of cells that are taller than they are wide
e) Single layer of cells that are taller than they are wide
Keratinized stratified squamous

a) Walls of the air sacs of the lungs and lining blood vessels

b) Skin

c) Walls of smallest ducts of glands and kidney tubules

d) Lines the urinary bladder

e) Upper respiratory tract
b) Skin
Transitional

a) Walls of the air sacs of the lungs and lining blood vessels

b) Skin

c) Walls of smallest ducts of glands and kidney tubules

d) Lines the urinary bladder

e) Upper respiratory tract
d) Lines the urinary bladder
Simple squamous

a) Walls of the air sacs of the lungs and lining blood vessels

b) Skin

c) Walls of smallest ducts of glands and kidney tubules

d) Lines the urinary bladder

e) Upper respiratory tract
a) Walls of the air sacs of the lungs and lining blood vessels
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar

a) Walls of the air sacs of the lungs and lining blood vessels

b) Skin

c) Walls of smallest ducts of glands and kidney tubules

d) Lines the urinary bladder

e) Upper respiratory tract
e) Upper respiratory tract
Simple cuboidal

a) Walls of the air sacs of the lungs and lining blood vessels

b) Skin

c) Walls of smallest ducts of glands and kidney tubules

d) Lines the urinary bladder

e) Upper respiratory tract
c) Walls of smallest ducts of glands and kidney tubules
Regeneration

a) Tissue with a free apical surface

b) No blood vessels; abundant nerve endings

c) Rapidly replace lost cells by cell division

d) Desmosomes; tight junctions

e) Two laminae forming a basement membrane
c) Rapidly replace lost cells by cell division
Specialized contacts

a) Tissue with a free apical surface

b) No blood vessels; abundant nerve endings

c) Rapidly replace lost cells by cell division

d) Desmosomes; tight junctions

e) Two laminae forming a basement membrane
d) Desmosomes; tight junctions
Polarity

a) Tissue with a free apical surface

b) No blood vessels; abundant nerve endings

c) Rapidly replace lost cells by cell division

d) Desmosomes; tight junctions

e) Two laminae forming a basement membrane
a) Tissue with a free apical surface
Supported by connective tissue

a) Tissue with a free apical surface

b) No blood vessels; abundant nerve endings

c) Rapidly replace lost cells by cell division

d) Desmosomes; tight junctions

e) Two laminae forming a basement membrane
e) Two laminae forming a basement membrane
Avascular but not innervated

a) Tissue with a free apical surface

b) No blood vessels; abundant nerve endings

c) Rapidly replace lost cells by cell division

d) Desmosomes; tight junctions

e) Two laminae forming a basement membrane
b) No blood vessels; abundant nerve endings
Mammary glands

a) Simple branched alveolar

b) Compound tubuloalveolar

c) Simple tubular

d) Compound alveolar
d) Compound alveolar
Salivary glands

a) Simple branched alveolar

b) Compound tubuloalveolar

c) Simple tubular

d) Compound alveolar
b) Compound tubuloalveolar
Intestinal glands

a) Simple branched alveolar

b) Compound tubuloalveolar

c) Simple tubular

d) Compound alveolar
c) Simple tubular
Sebaceous glands

a) Simple branched alveolar

b) Compound tubuloalveolar

c) Simple tubular

d) Compound alveolar
a) Simple branched alveolar
Collagen fibers

a) These long, thin, branching fibers form wide networks within the extracellular matrix and possess the ability to stretch and then return to their original length

b) These short branching fibers cluster into delicate networks and have the ability to glide freely across one another whenever the network is pulled, allowing give

c) The strongest and most abundant fibers, they allow connective tissues to resist tension
c) The strongest and most abundant fibers, they allow connective tissues to resist tension
Reticular fibers

a) These long, thin, branching fibers form wide networks within the extracellular matrix and possess the ability to stretch and then return to their original length

b) These short branching fibers cluster into delicate networks and have the ability to glide freely across one another whenever the network is pulled, allowing give

c) The strongest and most abundant fibers, they allow connective tissues to resist tension
b) These short branching fibers cluster into delicate networks and have the ability to glide freely across one another whenever the network is pulled, allowing give
Elastic fibers

a) These long, thin, branching fibers form wide networks within the extracellular matrix and possess the ability to stretch and then return to their original length

b) These short branching fibers cluster into delicate networks and have the ability to glide freely across one another whenever the network is pulled, allowing give

c) The strongest and most abundant fibers, they allow connective tissues to resist tension
a) These long, thin, branching fibers form wide networks within the extracellular matrix and possess the ability to stretch and then return to their original length
Mast cells

a) Phagocytic cells that engulf foreign matter

b) Secrete histamine

c) Store fat molecules

d) Produce collagen, elastic, and reticular fibers

e) Produce antibodies
b) Secrete histamine
Plasma cells

a) Phagocytic cells that engulf foreign matter

b) Secrete histamine

c) Store fat molecules

d) Produce collagen, elastic, and reticular fibers

e) Produce antibodies
e) Produce antibodies
Fibroblasts

a) Phagocytic cells that engulf foreign matter

b) Secrete histamine

c) Store fat molecules

d) Produce collagen, elastic, and reticular fibers

e) Produce antibodies
d) Produce collagen, elastic, and reticular fibers
Macrophages

a) Phagocytic cells that engulf foreign matter

b) Secrete histamine

c) Store fat molecules

d) Produce collagen, elastic, and reticular fibers

e) Produce antibodies
a) Phagocytic cells that engulf foreign matter
Adiopocytes

a) Phagocytic cells that engulf foreign matter

b) Secrete histamine

c) Store fat molecules

d) Produce collagen, elastic, and reticular fibers

e) Produce antibodies
c) Store fat molecules
Adipose

a) Ligaments; tendons; aponeuroses

b) Bone marrow; spleen; lymph nodes

c) Hypodermis; in mesenteries; surrounding kidneys; posterior to eyeballs

d) Supports external ear, epiglottis

e) Intervertebral discs; pubis symphysis; menisci of knee joint
c) Hypodermis; in mesenteries; surrounding kidneys; posterior to eyeballs
Elastic cartilage

a) Ligaments; tendons; aponeuroses

b) Bone marrow; spleen; lymph nodes

c) Hypodermis; in mesenteries; surrounding kidneys; posterior to eyeballs

d) Supports external ear, epiglottis

e) Intervertebral discs; pubis symphysis; menisci of knee joint
d) Supports external ear, epiglottis
Dense regular connective tissue

a) Ligaments; tendons; aponeuroses

b) Bone marrow; spleen; lymph nodes

c) Hypodermis; in mesenteries; surrounding kidneys; posterior to eyeballs

d) Supports external ear, epiglottis

e) Intervertebral discs; pubis symphysis; menisci of knee joint
a) Ligaments; tendons; aponeuroses
Fibrocartilage

a) Ligaments; tendons; aponeuroses

b) Bone marrow; spleen; lymph nodes

c) Hypodermis; in mesenteries; surrounding kidneys; posterior to eyeballs

d) Supports external ear, epiglottis

e) Intervertebral discs; pubis symphysis; menisci of knee joint
e) Intervertebral discs; pubis symphysis; menisci of knee joint
Reticular connective tissue

a) Ligaments; tendons; aponeuroses

b) Bone marrow; spleen; lymph nodes

c) Hypodermis; in mesenteries; surrounding kidneys; posterior to eyeballs

d) Supports external ear, epiglottis

e) Intervertebral discs; pubis symphysis; menisci of knee joint
b) Bone marrow; spleen; lymph nodes
Osteoblast

a) Cartilage-producing cell

b) Bone-producing cell

c) Liquid portion of blood

d) Non-living material located between the cells of a connective tissue

e) Type of fibroblast
b) Bone-producing cell
Plasma

a) Cartilage-producing cell

b) Bone-producing cell

c) Liquid portion of blood

d) Non-living material located between the cells of a connective tissue

e) Type of fibroblast
c) Liquid portion of blood
Chondrocyte

a) Cartilage-producing cell

b) Bone-producing cell

c) Liquid portion of blood

d) Non-living material located between the cells of a connective tissue

e) Type of fibroblast
a) Cartilage-producing cell
Extracellular matrix

a) Cartilage-producing cell

b) Bone-producing cell

c) Liquid portion of blood

d) Non-living material located between the cells of a connective tissue

e) Type of fibroblast
d) Non-living material located between the cells of a connective tissue
Reticular cell

a) Cartilage-producing cell

b) Bone-producing cell

c) Liquid portion of blood

d) Non-living material located between the cells of a connective tissue

e) Type of fibroblast
e) Type of fibroblast
Cutaneous membrane

a) Lines the ventral body cavity walls and covers the ventral body cavity viscera

b) Lines the inside of hollow organs that open to the body's exterior

c) Covers the outer surface of the body
c) Covers the outer surface of the body
Mucous membrane
(mucosa)

a) Lines the ventral body cavity walls and covers the ventral body cavity viscera

b) Lines the inside of hollow organs that open to the body's exterior

c) Covers the outer surface of the body
b) Lines the inside of hollow organs that open to the body's exterior
Serous membrane
(serosae)

a) Lines the ventral body cavity walls and covers the ventral body cavity viscera

b) Lines the inside of hollow organs that open to the body's exterior

c) Covers the outer surface of the body
b) Lines the inside of hollow organs that open to the body's exterior
Walls of hollow organs

a) Skeletal muscle tissue

b) Smooth muscle tissue

c) Cardiac muscle tissue
b) Smooth muscle tissue
Walls of the heart

a) Skeletal muscle tissue

b) Smooth muscle tissue

c) Cardiac muscle tissue
c) Cardiac muscle tissue
Attached to bones

a) Skeletal muscle tissue

b) Smooth muscle tissue

c) Cardiac muscle tissue
a) Skeletal muscle tissue
Skeletal muscle tissue

a) No striations; spindle-shaped cells; uninucleated cells

b) Striated; branching cells; intercalated discs; generally uninucleated cells

c) Striated; multinucleated cells; long, large, cylinder-shaped cells
c) Striated; multinucleated cells; long, large, cylinder-shaped cells
Smooth muscle tissue

a) No striations; spindle-shaped cells; uninucleated cells

b) Striated; branching cells; intercalated discs; generally uninucleated cells

c) Striated; multinucleated cells; long, large, cylinder-shaped cells
a) No striations; spindle-shaped cells; uninucleated cells
Cardiac muscle tissue

a) No striations; spindle-shaped cells; uninucleated cells

b) Striated; branching cells; intercalated discs; generally uninucleated cells

c) Striated; multinucleated cells; long, large, cylinder-shaped cells
b) Striated; branching cells; intercalated discs; generally uninucleated cells
Hyaline cartilage

a) Forms embryonic skeleton and covers the ends of long bones

b) Skeletal system

c) Located within the cardiovascular system

d) Primary tissue of the dermis

e) Primary tissue of ligaments and tendons
a) Forms embryonic skeleton and covers the ends of long bones
Bone

a) Forms embryonic skeleton and covers the ends of long bones

b) Skeletal system

c) Located within the cardiovascular system

d) Primary tissue of the dermis

e) Primary tissue of ligaments and tendons
b) Skeletal system
Dense regular connective tissue

a) Forms embryonic skeleton and covers the ends of long bones

b) Skeletal system

c) Located within the cardiovascular system

d) Primary tissue of the dermis

e) Primary tissue of ligaments and tendons
e) Primary tissue of ligaments and tendons
Blood

a) Forms embryonic skeleton and covers the ends of long bones

b) Skeletal system

c) Located within the cardiovascular system

d) Primary tissue of the dermis

e) Primary tissue of ligaments and tendons
c) Located within the cardiovascular system
Dense irregular connective tissue

a) Forms embryonic skeleton and covers the ends of long bones

b) Skeletal system

c) Located within the cardiovascular system

d) Primary tissue of the dermis

e) Primary tissue of ligaments and tendons
d) Primary tissue of the dermis
Connective tissue proper

a) Most atypical connective tissue; extracellular fibers are soluble protein molecules found in liquid plasma; abundant extracellular matrix

b) Loose connective tissue (areolar, adipose, and reticular); dense connective tissue (dense regular, dense irregular, and elastic)

c) Supports and protects body structures; stores fat; synthesizes blood cells

d) Stands up to both tension and compression; tough and flexible, providing resilient rigidity
b) Loose connective tissue (areolar, adipose, and reticular); dense connective tissue (dense regular, dense irregular, and elastic)
Cartilage

a) Most atypical connective tissue; extracellular fibers are soluble protein molecules found in liquid plasma; abundant extracellular matrix

b) Loose connective tissue (areolar, adipose, and reticular); dense connective tissue (dense regular, dense irregular, and elastic)

c) Supports and protects body structures; stores fat; synthesizes blood cells

d) Stands up to both tension and compression; tough and flexible, providing resilient rigidity
d) Stands up to both tension and compression; tough and flexible, providing resilient rigidity
Bone tissue

a) Most atypical connective tissue; extracellular fibers are soluble protein molecules found in liquid plasma; abundant extracellular matrix

b) Loose connective tissue (areolar, adipose, and reticular); dense connective tissue (dense regular, dense irregular, and elastic)

c) Supports and protects body structures; stores fat; synthesizes blood cells

d) Stands up to both tension and compression; tough and flexible, providing resilient rigidity
c) Supports and protects body structures; stores fat; synthesizes blood cells
Blood

a) Most atypical connective tissue; extracellular fibers are soluble protein molecules found in liquid plasma; abundant extracellular matrix

b) Loose connective tissue (areolar, adipose, and reticular); dense connective tissue (dense regular, dense irregular, and elastic)

c) Supports and protects body structures; stores fat; synthesizes blood cells

d) Stands up to both tension and compression; tough and flexible, providing resilient rigidity
a) Most atypical connective tissue; extracellular fibers are soluble protein molecules found in liquid plasma; abundant extracellular matrix
Cutaneous

a) Provides secretions that lubricate and protect areas that open to the outside of the body

b) Provides secretions for lubrication of organs enclosed within the body cavities

c) Provides protection for outer surface of body
c) Provides protection for outer surface of body
Mucous

a) Provides secretions that lubricate and protect areas that open to the outside of the body

b) Provides secretions for lubrication of organs enclosed within the body cavities

c) Provides protection for outer surface of body
a) Provides secretions that lubricate and protect areas that open to the outside of the body
Serous

a) Provides secretions that lubricate and protect areas that open to the outside of the body

b) Provides secretions for lubrication of organs enclosed within the body cavities

c) Provides protection for outer surface of body
b) Provides secretions for lubrication of organs enclosed within the body cavities
Skeletal muscle

a) Pumps a liquid connective tissue through vessels

b) Allows voluntary movement to occur by changing position of bones

c) Allows hollow organs to contract and propel materials through them (digestive organs, reproductive organs, etc.)
b) Allows voluntary movement to occur by changing position of bones
Smooth muscle

a) Pumps a liquid connective tissue through vessels

b) Allows voluntary movement to occur by changing position of bones

c) Allows hollow organs to contract and propel materials through them (digestive organs, reproductive organs, etc.)
c) Allows hollow organs to contract and propel materials through them (digestive organs, reproductive organs, etc.)
Cardiac muscle

a) Pumps a liquid connective tissue through vessels

b) Allows voluntary movement to occur by changing position of bones

c) Allows hollow organs to contract and propel materials through them (digestive organs, reproductive organs, etc.)
a) Pumps a liquid connective tissue through vessels
Fibroblast

a) Produces materials in connective tissue proper

b) Produces extracellular matrix of bone

c) Produces blood cells

d) Produces extracellular matrix of cartilage
a) Produces materials in connective tissue proper
Chondroblast

a) Produces materials in connective tissue proper

b) Produces extracellular matrix of bone

c) Produces blood cells

d) Produces extracellular matrix of cartilage
d) Produces extracellular matrix of cartilage
Osteoblast

a) Produces materials in connective tissue proper

b) Produces extracellular matrix of bone

c) Produces blood cells

d) Produces extracellular matrix of cartilage
b) Produces extracellular matrix of bone
Hematopoietic stem cell

a) Produces materials in connective tissue proper

b) Produces extracellular matrix of bone

c) Produces blood cells

d) Produces extracellular matrix of cartilage
c) Produces blood cells
Epethelial tissue

a) Ectoderm

b) Ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm

c) Mesoderm
b) Ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm
Connective tissue and muscle tissue

a) Ectoderm

b) Ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm

c) Mesoderm
c) Mesoderm
Nervous tissue

a) Ectoderm

b) Ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm

c) Mesoderm
a) Ectoderm
Neuron

a) Conducts signals

b) Non-conducting cells
a) Conducts signals
Supporting neuroglial cells

a) Conducts signals

b) Non-conducting cells
b) Non-conducting cells
Epithelial tissue, bone, loose connective tissue, and blood

a) Very good at regenerating

b) No useful regeneration

c) Moderate regenerating capacity

d) Poor regenerating capacity
a) Very good at regenerating
Smooth muscle and dense connective tissue

a) Very good at regenerating

b) No useful regeneration

c) Moderate regenerating capacity

d) Poor regenerating capacity
c) Moderate regenerating capacity
Skeletal muscle and cartilage

a) Very good at regenerating

b) No useful regeneration

c) Moderate regenerating capacity

d) Poor regenerating capacity
d) Poor regenerating capacity
Nervous tissue and cardiac muscle

a) Very good at regenerating

b) No useful regeneration

c) Moderate regenerating capacity

d) Poor regenerating capacity
b) No useful regeneration
During the process of tissue repair, which of the following processes produces scar tissue?

a) Regeneration
b) Stasis
c) Secretion
d) Fibrosis
e) Inflammation
d) Fibrosis

During the process of tissue repair, fibrosis involves the proliferation of a fibrous connective tissue called scar tissue.
Embryonic ectoderm develops into which of the following major tissue types?

a) Connective and muscle tissue
b) Nervous tissue and muscle tissue
c) Muscle tissue and epithelial tissue
d) Connective and epithelial tissue
e) Epithelial tissue and nervous tissue
e) Epithelial tissue and nervous tissue

Nervous tissue develops solely from embryonic ectoderm, while epithelial tissues develop from ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm embryonic tissue.
What type of tissue forms tendons?

a) Areolar
b) Elastic cartilage
c) Adipose
d) Dense irregular
e) Dense regular connective tissue
e) Dense regular connective tissue

Dense regular connective tissue forms tendons.
The basement membrane is located between which of the following tissue types?

a) Epithelial and connective
b) Connective and muscle
c) Muscle and nervous
d) Nervous and connective
e) Epithelial and muscle
a) Epithelial and connective

Epithelial tissue secretes the superficial basal lamina region of the basement membrane, whereas connective tissue produces the deeper reticular layer of the basement membrane.
This type of epithelial tissue lines the interior of blood vessels.

a) Mesothelium
b) Endothelium
c) Simple cuboidal
d) Stratified squamous
e) Transitional
b) Endothelium

A simple squamous epithelial tissue lines the interior of blood vessels.
This unicellular gland is associated with mucus production.

a) Macrophage
b) Fibroblast
c) Goblet cell
d) Chondrocyte
e) Plasma cell
c) Goblet cell

Goblet cells, located between columnar epithelial cells, function in producing the protein mucin, which, when combined with water, forms mucus.
Which of the following apical epithelial cell structures functions in the movement of materials across the surface of the cell?

a) Microvilli
b) Keratin
c) Cilia
d) Flagellum
e) Basal body
c) Cilia

The cilia on an epithelium bend and move in coordinated waves, pushing mucus and other substances over the epithelial surface.
Which of the following best describes a squamous-shaped cell?

a) A cell that possesses the ability to change its shape
b) A spherical-shaped cell
c) A flattened, scale-like cell
d) A cell that is taller than it is wide
e) A cell that is as wide as it is tall
c) A flattened, scale-like cell

Squamous cells are flattened and scale-like.
Which of the following epithelial tissue types is best adapted for the rapid transport of materials across its membranes?

a) Stratified squamous
b) Simple squamous
c) Pseudostratified ciliated columnar
d) Stratified cuboidal
e) Transitional
b) Simple squamous

Simple squamous epithelial tissue, composed of a single layer of flattened cells, occurs wherever small molecules must pass through a membrane quickly.
Which of the following is NOT a function of areolar connective tissue?

a) Storing nutrients as fat
b) Movement of body parts
c) Support and binding of other tissues
d) Holding body fluids
e) Defending the body against infection
b) Movement of body parts

While areolar connective tissue holds body fluids, stores nutrients, supports and binds other tissues, and defends the body against infection, movement of body parts is a task performed by the three different types of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth.
Which of the following is NOT a function of epithelial tissues?

a) Filtration
b) Protection
c) Control
d) Secretion
e) Ion transport
c) Control

Epithelial tissue functions in protection, secretion, ion transport, and filtration, but control is the primary responsibility of nervous tissue.
Which of the following is NOT an example of connective tissue?

a) Hyaline cartilage
b) Areolar
c) Transitional
d) Compact bone
e) Blood
c) Transitional

Characteristic of epithelial tissues, transitional epithelium is a lining tissue found lining the inside of the hollow urinary organs.
Which of the following tissues lines the majority of the digestive tract?

a) Simple squamous
b) Stratified cuboidal
c) Simple columnar
d) Pseudostratified ciliated columnar
e) Transitional
c) Simple columnar

Simple columnar epithelial tissue lines most of the digestive tract, from the stomach to the anus.
Which of the following types of epithelial tissue provides the greatest amount of protection?

a) Stratified columnar
b) Simple squamous
c) Pseudostratified ciliated columnar
d) Stratified squamous
e) Transitional
d) Stratified squamous

Stratified squamous is the thickest form of epithelial tissue and is composed of multiple layers of flat cells.
Which of the following indicates the proper sequence of tissue repair?

a) Organization, fibrosis and regeneration, scab formation, blood clotting, tissue damage
b) Tissue damage, blood clotting, scab formation, organization, fibrosis, regeneration
c) Fibrosis and regeneration, blood clotting, scab formation, tissue damage, organization
d) Tissue damage, organization, fibrosis and regeneration, blood clotting, scab formation
e) Blood clotting, tissue damage, scab formation, fibrosis and regeneration, organization
b) Tissue damage, blood clotting, scab formation, organization, fibrosis, regeneration

After tissue damage, a blood clot forms, which dries and forms a scab that will be replaced, via the process of organization, with granulation tissue, which, in turn, gives rise to regenerated tissue and fibrous scar tissue through the processes of regeneration and fibrosis.
Which of the following are functional characteristics of epithelial tissue?

a) Supported by connective tissue
b) Cells closely bound by specialized contacts
c) Apical surface
d) Secretion, protection, absorption, filtration
e) Closely packed cells without much extracellular material
d) Secretion, protection, absorption, filtration

All of these are functional characteristics of epithelial tissue.
Mucous that protects your stomach lining is secreted by a specialized type of:

a) transitional epithelial cell.
b) simple columnar epithelial cell.
c) stratified squamous epithelial cell.
d) simple squamous epithelial cell.
e) pseudostratified columnar epithelial cell.
f) simple cuboidal epithelial cell.
b) simple columnar epithelial cell.

Goblet cells are simple columnar epithelial cells.
A type of connective tissue that provides primary support and protection for body structures is:

a) muscle tissue.
b) reticular connective tissue.
c) nervous tissue.
d) cartilage.
e) osseous tissue.
f) blood.
e) osseous tissue.

Reticular connective tissue is found in soft tissues and does not provide primary support.
Which of the following tissue types controls most other tissues?

a) Muscle tissue
b) Nervous tissue
c) Blood
d) Cartilage
e) Epithelial tissue
b) Nervous tissue

Nervous tissue sends electrical signals to control the body.
Which of the following is found on the surface of the skin?

a) Stratified cuboidal epithelium
b) Simple columnar epithelium
c) Blood
d) Stratified squamous epithelium
e) Areolar connective tissue
d) Stratified squamous

The epidermis is stratified squamous epithelium.
Artifacts are:

a) the appearance cells take on when they are stained with acidic dyes.
b) the appearance cells take on when they are stained with base dyes.
c) the minor distortions seen in cells from staining procedures.
d) the appearance cells take on when they are stained with heavy metal dyes.
c) the minor distortions seen in cells from staining

Artifacts are the minor distortions seen in cells from staining procedures.
Microvilli are found on the ________ of the cell.

a) apical surface
b) basal surface
c) lateral surface
d) medial surface
a) apical surface

Microvilli are present on the free surface of the cell, which is its the apical.
Epithelial cells have all of the following properties except:

a) specialized contacts.
b) polarity.
c) support by adipose tissues.
d) the ability to rapidly divide and replace dead cells.
c) support by adipose tissues.

Epithelial cells are supported by connective tissue, not adipose tissue.
The presence of keratin provides a tough protective characteristic to:

a) transitional epithelium.
b) stratified sqamous epithelium.
c) stratified cuboidal epithelia.
d) adipose tissue.
b) stratified sqamous epithelium.

The stratified sqamous epithelium, which forms the epidermis, contains keratin that allows it to be a tough protective cover for the body.
Which of the following exocrine glands stores its secretion until the gland ruptures?

a) A holocrine gland
b) An apocrine gland
c) An endocrine gland
d) A merocrine gland
a) A holocrine gland

A holocrine gland stores its secretion until the gland ruptures.
Connective tissue arises from which of the following embryonic tissue?

a) Ectoderm
b) Mesoderm
c) Endoderm
d) Epiderm
b) Mesoderm

Mesoderm gives rise to connective tissue.
Where is brown fat found?

a) It is found in teenage females.
b) It is found in young infants.
c) It is found in any child under the age of six.
d) It is found in elderly females.
b) It is found in young infants.

Brown fat is found in young infants, who lack the ability to produce body heat by shivering.
A flat sheath-like tendon that connects muscle to bone is known as:

a) a ligament.
b) an aponeurosis.
c) a tendon.
d) elastic connective tissue.
b) an aponeurosis.

A tendon is a cord of connective tissue that attaches muscles to bones.
Blood is considered a connective tissue because:

a) it connects all parts of the body together.
b) it provides support.
c) it arises from mesenchymal tissue.
d) the plasma contains fibers in the form of soluble protein molecules.
c) it arises from mesenchymal tissue.

Blood is considered a connective tissue because it arises from mesenchymal tissue.
The stroma of most solid organs is composed of:

a) areolar connective tissue.
b) reticular connective tissue.
c) dense connective tissue.
d) fibrocartilage.
b) reticular connective tissue.

Fibrocartilage is found in intervertebral discs.
Fibrosis involves replacement of destroyed tissue with the same kind of tissue.

True / False
False


Fibrosis involves proliferation of fibrous connective tissue called scar tissue.
The event that sets the stage for tissue repair is inflammation.

True / False
True


Inflammation is the first reaction to trauma that allows later events of repair to occur.
Adhesions are areas where new scar tissue grows and connects adjacent organs after surgery.

True / False
True


Adhesions often cause problems after surgery by preventing normal functioning of internal organs.
An epithelium is found on a body surface or lining a body cavity.

True / False
True


An epithelium is a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity.
Brown adipose tissue occurs only in babies and functions in producing heat to warm the infant.

True / False
True


Brown adipose tissue, found only in babies, contains many lipid droplets and numerous mitochondria that use lipid fuel to heat the bloodstream and warm the infant.
All muscle tissue is under our voluntary control.

True / False
False
Endocrine glands secrete their products on body surfaces or into body cavities.

True / False
False


Endocrine glands secrete their products into the bloodstream rather than on an epithelial surface.
Epithelial tissue is highly vascularized.

True / False
False


Epithelium is avascular (lacking blood vessels) and receives nutrients from capillaries in underlying connective tissues.
Epithelial tissue secretes the basal lamina region of the basement membrane.

True / False
True


The basal lamina region of the basement membrane is a thin, non-cellular sheet, consisting of proteins secreted by epithelial tissue cells.
Inflammation destroys specific infectious microorganisms and foreign molecules at the site of infection and throughout the body.

True / False
False


Inflammation is a nonspecific, local response that limits damage to the injury site while the immune response destroys particular infectious microorganisms and foreign molecules at the site of infection and throughout the body.
Microvilli are finger-like extensions of the plasma membrane of apical epithelial cells that function in the movement of materials across the surface of a cell.

True / False
False


Microvilli maximize the surface area across which small molecules enter or leave cells and are NOT involved in the movement of materials across the surface of a cell.
Most of the body's glands are formed by connective tissues.

True / False
False


Epithelial tissue forms most of the body's glands.
Mucosa lines the closed pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities.

True / False
False


Mucosa lines the inside of hollow internal organs that open to the outside of the body. Mesothelium lines closed cavities .
The serous membranes are composed of a superficial layer of stratified squamous epithelium and a deep layer of areolar connective tissue.

True / False
False


A serous membrane, which lines the ventral body cavity walls and viscera, consists of a simple squamous epithelium lying on a thin layer of areolar connective tissue.
With increasing age, epithelia become thinner and more easily damaged.

True / False
True


As we age, metabolism and tissue regeneration slows.
As we age the amount of collagen in the body declines, making tissue repair less efficient.

True / False
True


The body produces less collagen as we age, adversely affecting tissue repair.
Inflammation is a pathological condition with no benefit to the body after an injury.

True / False
False


Inflammation acts to rid the body of the harmful agent, prevent further injury, and restore the tissue to a healthy condition.
Regeneration involves proliferation of fibrous connective tissue called scar tissue.

True / False
False


Regeneration is the replacement of destroyed tissue with the same kind of tissue.
The basic functional unit of bone tissue is the osteon.

True / False
True


Bone is made of many osteons.