MAN3025 Exam 2

Organizational culture can be thought of as consisting of three interrelated levels. At the deepest level, below our awareness, lie _____.
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Which of the following theories measures a leader's style using a scale called Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) scale?Fiedler's contingency theoryAccording to Fiedler's contingency theory, a high LPC score indicates a task-oriented person.falseAccording to the Fiedler's contingency theory:when situational favorableness is medium, high LPC leadership should be used.Fiedler's contingency theory predicts that in "favorable" and "unfavorable" situations, a high LPC leader is more likely to succeed than a low LPC leader.falseWhich of the following is one of the three conditions used in Fiedler's contingency theory for determining the situational favorableness?position powerWhich of the following leadership styles is recommended by the situational leadership theory when the employees have low competencies and low commitment levels?coaching behaviorsAccording to the path-goal theory of leadership, participative leadershipis effective when employees have a high internal locus of control.According to the transformational leadership theory, transformational leaders ensure that employees demonstrate the right behaviors because the leader provides resources in exchange.falseWith reference to the transformational leadership theory, _____ is a tool used by a transformational leader and it involves challenging organizational norms and status quo, and encouraging employees to think creatively and work harder.intellectual stimulationWhich of the following leadership theories uses the concept of in-group members and out-group members to indicate the two different types of relationships leaders have with their followers?leader member exchange theoryWith reference to the transformational leadership theory, _____ is a method used by a transactional leader and it involves leaving employees to do their jobs without interference, but at the same time proactively predicting potential problems and preventing them from management by exceptionNonprogrammed decisions are made with the help of a decision rule.false_____ decisions are decisions that occur frequently enough to develop an automated response to them.programmedWhich of the following decisions is most likely to be considered as a tactical decision?how should we market the new line?The _____ model describes a series of steps that decision makers should consider if their goal is to maximize the quality of their outcomes.rational decision makingWhich of the following decision-making models is most likely to lead to 'analysis paralysis'?rational decision makingIn a creative decision making process, during the _____ step, the decision maker thinks about the problem consciously and gathers information.immersionWhich of the following types of biases refers to the tendency for individuals to rely too heavily on arbitrary numbers, irrelevant traits, or facts when making decisions?anchoring and adjustment bias_____ is sometimes called sunk costs fallacy.escalation of commitmentWhich of the following is a decision making technique used by groups that uses written responses to a series of questionnaires instead of physically bringing individuals together to make a decision?delphi techniqueAnthropologist Edward T. Hall coined the term proxemics to denote the different:kinds of distance that occur between people.American organizational psychologist Bruce Tuckman presented a four-stage map of group evolution, known as the Forming-Storming-_____ -Performing Model.normingThe four-stage map of group evolution introduced by American organizational psychologist Bruce Tuckman was later enhanced by adding a fifth and final stage, _____.adjourningIf a student team decided that in order to create a top notch research paper they should work together on each phase of the research paper so that their best ideas would be captured at each stage, they would be undertaking _____ interdependence.reciprocal_____ interdependence exists when team members may work independently and simply combine their efforts to create the team's output.pooledThe calibrator role:serves to keep the team on track in terms of suggesting any needed changes to the team's process.The _____ role includes gathering information from the larger organization and informing those within the organization about team activities, goals, and successes.the consulFloundering is a common barrier to an effective team. It often results due to:lack of clear goalsAccording to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, _____ needs are at the highest level of the hierarchy.self-actualizationWhich of the following needs, as defined by Maslow's hierarchy of needs, corresponds to the 'relatedness' need of the ERG theory?social needs_____ theory of Clayton Alderfer is a modification of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.ERGAccording to the two-factor theory, which of the following will be considered as a hygiene factor?salaryTwo-factor theory proposes that aspects of the work environment that satisfy employees are very different from aspects that dissatisfy them.trueAccording to the two-factor theory, which of the following will be considered as a motivator?recognition______ theory, developed by Douglas McClelland, proposes that individuals acquire three types of needs as a result of their life experiences. These needs are need for achievement, need for affiliation, and need for power.acquired needs_____ justice refers to the degree to which the outputs received from the organization are fair.distributive_____ justice refers to the degree to which fair decision-making procedures are used.procedural_____ justice refers to the degree to which people are treated with respect, kindness, and dignity in interpersonal interactions.interactionalAccording to this theory, the perception of a person regarding whether high levels of effort will lead to desired outcomes, is termed as _____.expectancyAccording to expectancy theory, the degree to which the person believes that performance is related to secondary outcomes such as rewards, is known as _____.instrumentalityCultures that emerge within different departments, branches, or geographic locations are called:subculturesThe following are tips which allow one to more accurately gauge the culture of a company EXCEPT:read the mission and vision statementsIndustry characteristics and demands act as a force to create similarities among organizational cultures.trueAll leaders hold a position of authority and may utilize the power that comes from their position, as well as their personal power to influence others.falseEmployees tend to be satisfied, but the effects on decision making quality or employee productivity are weaker when leaders use which of the following decision making style?democraticEmployees engage in higher levels of conflict when leaders use which of the following decision making style?laissez faireThe style that involves a high level of manager involvement and is used when employees are highly motivated but have limited skills is:telling/directingLee Iaccoca, Jack Welch, and the late Steve Jobs are examples of business leaders who were:transformationalTransformational leaders ensure that employees demonstrate the right behaviors because the leader provides resources in exchange.falseResearch show the high LMX members are more satisfied with their jobs and perform at a higher level.trueThe tendency to trust in transactional leaders is lower than in transformational leaders.trueKahneman and Tversky found that individuals are influenced in decision making by which of the following?overconfidenceA problem the Group Decision Support System (GDSS) intended to solve is:to ensure every voice is heardNominal Group Technique (NGT) is used to structure group meetings when members are grappling with problem solving or idea generation.trueSatisficing is similar to rational decision making.trueFiltering, selective perception, information overload, and gender differences are examples of _______ to effective communication.barriersA major determinant of how autonomous a team can be is:team leadershipThe group members are more open and respectful toward each other, and willing to ask each other for both help and feedback at the stage of:normingCollective efficacy is stronger when interdependence is high rather than low.trueThe perception labeled "instrumentality" is a result of asking oneself:will performance lead to outcomes