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Rad Bio Final
Terms in this set (190)
Secretarial space, hallways, certain other areas of a department must qualify as an unrestricted area.
What is a unrestricted area?
What is the limit for am unrestricted area per hour?
What is the annual dose limit in REM for each member of the public not exceed?
General radiation safety rules
What must be posted in each laboratory in which radioactive materials are listed?
NO smoking, eating, storing of food, mouth pipetting
What are some general rules when it comes to radiation safety rules and regs?
State/ NRC regulations and phone number
what must be posted conspicuously in each nuclear med lab. Chart supplied by the regulatory agency
it is written on paper and gives the estimated date of conception.
A female worker is not officially declared pregnant until?
What is the embryo/ fetus over entire period of gestation?
What is the max dose you can get to the whole body?
What is the max dose you can get to the total organ?
What is the max dose you can get to the eye ?
What is the max dose you can get to the extremities?
T or F
the current licensee shall reduce the dose that an individual may be allowed to receive in the current year by the amount of occupational dose received while employed by any other person or facility.
When is a facility legally obligated to give you your badge readings?
every 24 hours
How often do you have to do a constancy dose calibrator check ?
Negative pressure room
What kind of room does Xe 133 gas have to be used in?
Is a puff smoke test still a requirement?
As Low As Reasonably Achievable
What does alara stand for?
the Radiation Safety Officer or his designate
The annual review of the radiation saftey program must be preformed by either ?
One sink that people are allowed to dump radiopharms down
what is a Hot Sink ?
readily soluble/ readily dispersible
Each radiopharm put down the sink must be ?
Each radiopharm put down the hot sink must be documented in the log book?
The radiopharm put down the sink, date, the amount dumped, and the initials of the person who did it.
What needs to be documented in the hot sink log book?
What amount must the hot sink not exceed ?
. By Federal law all DIAGNOSTIC doses must be within ?
Many agreement states still require that all doses must be within ?
WRITTEN consent from the prescribing physician.
. In either case, if a technologist wishes to administer a dose higher than that prescribed, he must receive ?
All therapeutic doses must be within ?
24-72 hr post admin time
Historically when one administered a dose of I-131 to a patient with thyroid cancer, one had to have his thyroid counted at ?
Oral I-131 sodium iodide
there is no requirement to perform thyroid monitoring 24-72 hr after administration of ?
an adult is defined as an individual __________ or more years of age
High Radiation Area
Very High Radiation Area
what are the three designated areas?
Radiation Area - An accessible area where an individual could receive a dose equivalent in excess of ______ in 1 hour at 30 centimeters from the radiation source or from any surface that the radiation penetrates.
High Radiation Area - An accessible area where an individual could receive a dose equivalent in excess of _________in 1 hour at 30 centimeters from the radiation source or from any surface the radiation penetrates.
Very High Radiation Area - An accessible area where an individual could receive an absorbed dose in excess of ________ in 1 hour at 1 meter from a radiation source or from any surface that the radiation penetrates. This is strictly a Nuclear Power Plant term and has no applicability to Nuclear Medicine.
the whole body dose in humans where 100% of all people die within 30 days.
The LD 100/30 ?
*likely to receive a dose >10% of limits
*going to enter a high or very high radiation area
monitoring is required if an individual is?
named persons for a specific use of radioactive materials, for example a Nuclear Cardiology Imaging Center.
SPECIFIC license is issued to?
individuals who have very little chance of causing harm with the materials, for example, a Radioimmunoassay Laboratory. This license also applies to some laboratories and users of certain sealed sources.
GENERAL license is issued to?
universities and large medical centers for medical use of essentially any radioisotope.
A BROAD license is issued to ?
Each institution has only ______ Radioactive Materials license
The institution is the ________, not the director of Nuclear Medicine or the Director of Radiology or the Radiation Safety Officer.
A GM Survey of your lab must be performed on a _______ basis in any room in which radioisotopes are used.
A wipe test must be performed _______, usually at end of the week
GM Counter survey
Perform a _________ of each room in which radioisotopes are used
Record Model # & Serial # of meter used • Record background reading • Record actual reading; specify units • Specify "action level" (criterion for immediate action to be taken)
What do you record for each read of a GM Counter survey of each room ?
For a wipe test An accurate ______ must be drawn.
For a wipe test _______ dry wipes are taken in each room in which radioisotopes are used.
Count rates are greater than normal background
Results of the counting procedure are correlated with the area map to identify areas with ?
*document radioactivity level of the hot spot
*decontaminate to background levels
*recheck the area using a new wipe, and record the new reading indicating that contamination has been removed
If contamination is found, obligation is to ?
All sealed sources (gamma counter calibration sources, dose calibrator standards, spot markers, etc)
_______ must be leak-tested every 6 months and results of this testing recorded in the appropriate logbook.
it should be very carefully packed to prevent contamination and should be returned to the manufacturer for proper disposal.
If a source is found to be leaking radioactivity?
stipulating that they will be the sole regulators, but will follow Federal guidelines. They may choose to be more restrictive than the Federal guidelines, but not more lenient
What is an agreement state ?
T or F
Some Agreement States choose to be more restrictive and require hospitalization of the patient until his radiation level drops below 5 mR/hr at 1 meter from the patient's chest.
Hand monitoring by Nuclear Medicine Technologists is required how often ?
Treadmill monitoring is also required how often ?
Should you record all of your surveys ?
*Nuclear Medicine Technologists
*All Authorized Users
*Loading Dock personnel who deliver radioactive materials
*Housekeeping involved in Hot Lab cleaning
* Security officers accompanying delivery men
what groups of people must undergo annual Radiation Safety Training?
At all times that you are not in the room or around eye site of the room.
When should hte lab door be locked?
within 3 hours
When do you have to do survey packages that come into the hospital?
T or F
Packages containing only a radioactive gas, e.g.., Xe-133, or special form radioactive material do not need to be monitored for contamination.
YES. include the radiopharm, time, date, and the person initials that recorded it.
Does Every package containing radioisotopes have to be logged in appropriately?
*A 5 mCi standard of Tc-99m
*A 10 mCi unit dose of Ga-67 citrate
*A 100 mCi therapy dose of I-131 NaI
*A 0.1 mCi dose of Cr-51 Na chromate
*A 0.010 mCi dose of I-125 HSA
Examples of packages that must be logged into the incoming package log book include......
*Transfer to licensed person/company
*Decay in Storage
*Release as effluents within authorized limits (Nuclear Power Plants)
*Decay in storage <120 days
What are Acceptable Methods of Waste Disposal ?
T OR F
A licensee shall calibrate the radioisotope dose calibrator in accordance with nationally recognized standards or the manufacturer's instructions.
Deviation from standard or expected values for all dose calibrator tests must be within ±
installation and annually.
The accuracy test is performed at ?
T or F
Accuracy is designed to show that the calibrator is giving correct readings throughout the entire energy scale that we are likely to encounter
installation and daily
The constancy test is performed at?
T or F
Constancy measures instrument precision and is designed to show that a long-lived source, usually 30 y Cs-137, yields reproducible readings on a daily basis on all isotope settings we are likely to use.
installation and after repair of the dose calibrator
The geometry test, performed at ?
T or F
Geometry , is designed to show that correct readings can be obtained regardless of the sample size or geometry
*Radionuclidic Mo-99 Poor Image Quality Altered Radiation Dose
*Radiochemical Hr Tc Poor Image Quality Altered Radiation Dose
*Chemical Al3+ Poor Image Quality
What are three types of impurities and an example of each ?
makes things not bind
Al3+ Ion Breakthrough Test
Records of doses received by all individuals for
whom monitoring was required must be maintained
until license termination. The records must be made
at least _______?
Records of receipts must be kept for as long as the material is possessed and for _____ years following transfer or disposal.
Records of disposal must be retained until?
Records of instrument calibrations must be maintained
for _____ years and must include the model and
serial number of the instrument, the date of the
calibration, the results of the calibration, and the
name of the individual who performed the calibration
Records of dosage determinations must be maintained
for _____ years and must contain the radiopharmaceutical
Records of disposal of licensed materials must be
maintained for ____ years
and must include the date of
the disposal, the survey instrument used, the
background radiation level, the radiation level and
the name of the individual who performed the survey
Licensees must notify the NRC Operation Center by telephone (301-951-0550) within _____ days after the occurrence of any lost, stolen, or missing licensed material becomes known in a quantity greater than 10 times
Within ____ days after the telephone report, a written report must be made to the administrator of the appropriate NRC Regional Office, containing the following information: description of the licensed material involved, description of the circumstances under which the loss or theft occurred,
the next calendar day after discovery of the medical event.
Licensee must notify the NRC Operations Center by telephone (301-951-0550) no later than ?
15 days with licensee's name
medical event: A written report must be submitted to the appropriateNRC Regional Office within
identification of the individual.
reports may not contain any information that could lead to?
The licensee must also provide an annotated copy of the report to the referring physician no later than _____ days after the discovery of the event
when the spill can be contained, very few people are involved,
when the spill activity is difficult to contain, relatively large number of people are involved,
occupational exposure. This is different from the types of exposures patients receive.
The EDE limit is specified only for ?
whole-body exposure and individual organs.
Effective dose equivalent limits are established for ?
the lifetime risk of occupational radiation exposure does not exceed the approximate risk of death of those working in safe industries.
The maximum dose limits are calculated so that?
The EDE limit during pregnancy is ?
for pregnancy the monthly dose should not exceed ?
rad (radiation absorbed dose).
The traditional unit for absorbed dose is the?
The International System (SI) unit is the ?
Any substance or material that is capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety and property when transported in commerce.
The U.S.D.O.T. defines hazmat as?
a subsection of the DOT regulations
Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) are?
the safety of the public and individuals whose jobs include the handling and transportation of hazmat
The primary goal of the HMR is?
A company that utilizes one or more employees to transport, or cause transport, hazardous materials in commerce
One who directly affects the safe transportation of hazardous materials, either as a self-employed person or as one who performs duties relating to hazardous materials as part of their job for an employer
*Prepare a package of hazardous material for shipment
*Operate a vehicle used to transport hazardous material
*Are responsible for safety of transporting hazardous material
Requires general training in the safe handling of hazardous material for all employees who during the course of employment
Must complete training required by 49 CFR 172.704 within _____ days after employment or a change in job function.
Must receive training, as required by 49CFR 172.704, at least once every ______years.
What is Needed to Transport HAZMAT?
T or F
Every container used to transport hazardous material has been tested in a certain package configuration.
leaking, spilling, or breaking open.
Packages must withstand normal transport wear and tear without ?
t or f
When returning radioactive materials, they should be packed back into the delivery cases in the same configuration as it was a delivered.
Hazard Class 7
The Hazard Class used to identify packages containing radioactive material is?
Each Package containing radioactive material must be labeled with _____ hazmat warning labels on opposite sides of the package as well as other designators.
Labels are designed and color coded so that the hazards can be ?
directional arrows and the arrows pointing in the correct upright position
Packages containing liquid RAM must be marked with ?
T or F
The addresses for both the Shipper and the Consignee must also be labeled on the package
*Take readings in a low background area.
*Move SLOWLY over all 6 sides of the package
*Use the reading from the most radioactive (hottest) side of the package to determine which DOT labels to use.
when Properly Labeling a Package.....
The Transportation Index (TI) is equivalent to the maximum radiation level in millirem per hour at 1 meter.
What is the Transportation Index of a Package ?
Limited / Exempted Quantity
Radioactive White I
Radioactive Yellow II
Radioactive Yellow III
what are the 5 LABELS?
Applied to packages which previously contained Class 7 (radioactive) materials and has been emptied of contents as far as practical.
EMPTY Class 7
0.5 m rem/hour
Excepted packages have a dose rate at the surface of less than ______ and do not exceed limited quantity package limits
This designation is used for the following label.....
Surface Reading of
Radiation Level at the surface is equal to or greater than:
0.5 mR/Hr and less than 50 mR/Hr
And / Or
Transportation Index = 0.1-1.0
Package surface reading equal to or greater than 50 mR/Hr but less than:
And / Or
Transportation Index between:
1.0 and 10
The Carrier of a Yellow III package MUST have a HAZMAT CDL Drivers License
- And -
The outside of the vehicle carrying the Yellow III package must be placarded
Each package for transport and delivery must be ______ for removable contamination prior to release
T OR F
"Caution, Radiation Area" warning sign must be posted in each area where someone could receive a dose equivalent in excess of 5 mrem per hour at 30 cm from a radioactive source or surface
gloves to be worn
convert CPM to DPM
wipe al sides
limit 22DPM/ CM squared
check for damage and leaks
DPM= CPM/ efficiency of counter for a particular radioparm
______ merely measures the number of atoms that decay in one minute given a select amount of radioactive material
______ provides for the exact quantity of those atoms that have actually decayed.
T or F
DPM = CPM / Efficiency
*The TOTAL activity of the returns do not exceed the most restrictive isotope
*There is no removable contamination
*The surface reading is <0.5mR/Hr
when returning containers you need to make sure that.....
T or F
Anything that is not exempt you need to placard
he can refuse anything he wants
T or F
a pilot can not refuse a package to fly
f you have not received specific training in IATA rules and procedures within the last______ years you are not permitted to ship Dangerous Goods by air.
The Department of Transportation and the Federal Aviation Administration conducts unannounced _________for compliance to IATA regulations
Violators of the hazardous-materials regulations can be charged up to ______ per violation
______ can result in the cell being repaired, cell death, or modifications or mutations in the cell
to organs and eventual death
In cases of high doses of whole body radiation, biologic damage can result in severe damage to what ?
carcinogenesis or hereditary genetic mutations.
When cells are modified by irradiation the possible effects include ?
T or F
It has been established that the severity of the cancer does depend on the dose.
how red skin id getting
What is sed rate?
Red Dry skin condition
what is x-ray dermatitis?
does SED go away when you stop working with x rays and stuff ?
IS SED permanent ?
yes but it takes many many years
can cancer develop from X ray exposure ?
the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells.
All cancers are characterized by ?
Although cancer is more common in certain parts of the body, any ______can become cancerous.
what does metastasis mean ?
what are some cancers ?
chemicals and radiation
The two primary types of carcinogens are ?
It does increase
T or F Exposure to carcinogens does not increase a person's risk of cancer.
It is estimated that_____ of cancers are caused by exposure to carcinogens
cancer causing agent
what is a carcinogen ?
T or F
The chance of a smoker dying of cancer is twice that of a non smoker
T or F
: Ultraviolet radiation from the sun is thought to be the cause of most of the 600,000 cases of skin cancer reported each year in the United States
Regardless of the ultimate origination of a cancer, the process of developing cancer is the _____
The process begins with a normal cell. This cell undergoes some _______. The ________ may be spontaneous or induced by a virus, chemicals, or radiation. When the cell with a mutated chromosome replicates, one of the daughter cells contains the mutated gene.
Another way a cell becomes malignant is through the loss of ________
malignant cells from reproducing.
suppressor genes job is to stop _______
ionizing radiation, smoking, chemical agents, or even sunburns.
The absence of suppressor genes can be attributed to many causes including ________
Tumor compression and tumor killer
gene P53 is a ________
When supressor genes are working they produce _____
delay between interaction with cancer causing agent and the actual expression of the cancer.
what is a latent period ?
months to years
how long can the latent period last for ?
_______ has the shortest patient period 7-12 years
_____ tumors take much longer to develop.
breast, lung, thyroid, and bone
Solid tumors include tumors of the ......
T or F
uncertain whether the risk for solid tumors will continue to rise after 40 years or decline as with leukemia.
T or F
The fact that there is a clear link between ionizing radiation and cancers is one of the most important reasons behind the extensive protection procedures in radiography
For patients who require diagnostic radiographs, the potential benefits of obtaining essential medical information must far _______ any possible risk of radiation-induced cancer
it is important
T or F
when assess the risk of radiation exposure, it is not necessary to use data from populations that have been exposed to higher than normal doses of ionizing radiation.
To assess risk, we first have to know the expected natural occurrence of a _______
.GY (10 rad)
What is a single one time exposure
0.01 Gy (1 rad) per year
what is Continuous exposure=
0.001 Gy (100 mrad) per year
Each of these estimates is based on a linear, nonthreshold dose-response relationship.
what are the the radi exposures based off of ?
cancer is higher among _____ than _______
exposed in utero=
greater risk of cancer
Younger children exposed to radi have a higher risk of getting =
research has been conducted on populations exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation.
what is a BEIR study?
T or F
The BEIR Committee evaluated all of the studies available and decided these low-dose studies were not useful in assessing the risks of radiation-induced carcinogenesis
Relative Risk assessment looks at ?
comparing the # of person exposed population who shows sign of late radi effect with # of cases one should expect in the general pop.
Relative Risk assessment
what are common sites for solid tumors
a carcinoma is a
mega house study was a study done on
men are more likely to cancer than women
mega house study showed that
too much sun exposure
what is the most coomon cause of skin cancer
What should your basement not exceed ?
the clock girls used it
which cancer is the hardest to detect ?
Women should get ____ to see if they have breast cancer
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