CLA 10 - MT1

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AchaeansHomer's description for the men who attack TroyLinear Bnonalphabetic script from Late Bronze AgeDark Age1150-800 BC social and political upheavalArchaic Period800-480 BC invention of the alphabet (adapted from Phoenicians) rise of the polis (city-states) Homer and HesiodClassical Period480-323 BC begins with defeat of Persians Democracy in Athens Athens - center of art and learning Tragedy & long prosePeloponnesian WarWar: Sparta against AthensHellenistic Period323-30 BC begins with the death of Alexander the Great ends with the fall of Alexandria (Egypt) into Roman handspederasty"love for boys"hoplitesheavily armed men who fought in open plain warfare for their polisparthenosunmarried "virgin" girls though to be wild and dangerous during this timemiasmapollutionNarcissusyouth of good looks would live long "if he does not look at his own face" saw his face reflected in a spring and whild reaching for the figure, fell in and drowned body turned into a flowerRoman Period30 BC-? AD Begins when rome takes over EgyptMesopotamia"land between the rivers" between Tigris and EuphratesSumerians4000 BC lived near the estuary of the Tigris and EuphratesCuneiformWedge-shaped writing myths starting around 3400 BCAnSumerian "Sky"InannaSumerian Daughter of An "Queen of Heaven" Love and WarEnlilSumerian "Lord of the storm" King of all An's agent on earthEnkiSumerian Lord of the Earth Trickster Arts and CraftsKiSumerian Earth motherEreshkigalSumerian "Queen of the great below" DeathSemiticFrom Hebrew Bible Descendants of Noah's son SemAkkadiansSemitic City of Akkad Conquered Sumer ~2300 BCBabyloniansconquered Akkadians ~1750 BCAddadian/Babylonian godsAn -> Anu Inanna -> Ishtar Enlil -> Marduk Enki -> EaHebrewsSemitic Monotheistic religion (Yahweh)HittitesNon-Semitic Controlled Anatolia (Asia Minor) Cuneiform MythsHomerPoet Archaic Period "Iliad" (Trojan War) "Odyssey" (Odysseus' trip home)Epiclong narrative poem celebrating the deeds of heroesHesiodPoet (~700 BC) Archaic Period "Theogony" ("origin of the gods") "Works and Days"Cosmogonyorder + creation "origin of the world"Theogonygod + creation "origin of the gods" Hesiod wrote oneHomeric HymnsCollection of poems composed orally from the seventh and sixth centuries BCHumanismEthics and Secular law Human invention, not divine interventionChoral Songmemorized for public presentation by a group of twelve or more boy or girl dancersTragedytragoidia = "goat song" goat - symbol of DionysusAeschylus525-456 BC earliest tragedian 7/80 plays long elaborate descriptions "the Persians"Sophocles496-406 BC 7/123 plays dignity of human beings in conflict with superior forces influenced by folklore prophecies and oraclesEuripides484-406 BC 19/90 plays deflated heroesApollonius of Rhodes3rd Century BC epic poem in the style of Homer, Argonautica, on JasonLibrary of Apollodorus~ 120 AD Hellenistic handbook of Greek Myth straightforward account of mythical events from the creation of the world to the death of OdysseusVergil70-19 BC (also Virgil) Roman Poet Aeneid, the story of Aeneas fullest description of the underworld and most vivid account of the sacking of TroyOvid43 BC-17 AD Roman Poet most important source from early Roman EmpireMetamorphosesBy Ovid most substantial and influential repertory of Greek myth most are love stories lack religious overtonesChaos"chasm" first to appear (In Hesiod's Theogony)Gaea"earth" appears second, after chaos (In Hesiod's Theogony)Tartarus"the underworld" appears third, after Gaea (In Hesiod's Theogony)Eros"desire" appears fourth, after Tartarus (In Hesiod's Theogony)Nyx"Night" from ChaosErebus"Darkness" from ChaosAether"Radiance" from Nyx/ErebusHemera"Day" from Nyx/ErebusUranus"Sky" from GaeaPontus"Sea" from GaeaCyclopesone-eyed from Gaea/Uranus powerful, violent craftsmen create Zeus' bolts of lightningHecatonchireshundred-handed and fifty heads from Gaea/Uranus violent warriorsCronus"time"? Titan from Gaea/ Uranus (last born) father of Olympians w/Rhea (sister)Cronus vs UranusUranus was joined to Gaea, blocking her children from being born Cronus was given a sickle by Gaea cut off Uranus' Genitals to free the Titans from Gaea's womb he flung the genitals away and Uranus floated up the the sky where is wound dripped blood on the earthOceanusriver surrounding the world Titan creates 6,000 Oceanids with Tethys (goddess of sea)Rhea"earth" Titan mother of Olympians w/CronusHeliussun-god from Titan Hyperion (sun-god)Eosdawn from Titan Hyperion (sun god)Phaethonfrom Helius/Clymene(and Oceanid) doubted his parentage presentated himself to Helius asked to drive the chariot of sun across the sky burned Libya (now a desert) and the Ethiopians black was blasted by Zeus and fell into the river EridanusTithonusTrojan prince loved by Eos Eos asked Zeus for him to live forever, but forgot to ask for him not to age he grew old and Eos locked him away he shriveled and turned into a cicadaErinyesThe Furies from the blood of Uranus falling on Gaea haunt anyone who sheds kindred blood, driving them to madnessGiants"earthborn ones" from the blood of Uranus falling on Gaea enormous strength and unbridled violenceNereusold man of the sea from Gaea/Pontus prophet could change shape at will fathered 52 Nereids (sea spirits)Zeus vs Cronusprophesied that Cronus' child will usurp his throne, therefore he swallows them after each is born Rhea gives Cronus a rock to swallow after hiding away her youngest, Zeus Zeus forced Cronus to vomit up the Olympians Zeus became king of the godsTitanomachy"battle of the Titans" Titans vs Olympians only Titan Themis (law) and her son Prometheus (forethought) sided with Zeus 10 year war at Gaea's bidding, Zeus freed the Cyclopes and Hecatonchires from Tartarus together they bury the Titans in TartarusAtlas?Titan or Giant? condemned by Zeus to live at the edge of the world where he held up the heavens, ensuring the separation of the Sky and EarthTyphoeus(also Typhon) from Gaea/Tartarus hundred dragon heads, eyes that shot fire voice that could impersonate any sound and speak "words only the gods can know" threatened to overtake the world is trapped by Zeus under Mt EtnaMetis"cleverness" Oceanid Zeus' first wife prophesied that her child with zeus with over throw him zeus swallows her, but she is already pregnant with Athena Zeus gives birth to Athena from his own head after being struck with an axGiantomachy"battle of the Giants" giants attack the Olympians with Zeus' son, Heracles, the Olympians prevailEnuma elishBabylonian creation storyApsufreshwater Babylonian maleTiamatsaltwater Babylonian femaleEa vs ApsuApsu resents his children's noise and plots to destroy them Ea (Sumerian Enki, trickster) sends Apsu and his adviser, Mummu, to sleep Ea kills Apsu and imprisons MummuMarduk vs TiamatEa builds his house on Apsu's corpse From his wife is born Marduk Marduk's four winds disturb Tiamat Ea and Anu defeated Anshar promises Marduk kingship if he defeats Tiamat Marduk kills Tiamat, imprisons her monsters and lover, KinguKingship in HeavenHittite creation story Anush (sky god) suffers under his father, Alalush; defeats him in battle and becomes king Kumarbi makes war on his father, Anush, and bites off his genitals; after swollowing his sperm, he becomes pregnant Teshub (storm god) is born, escapes Kumarbi's stomach, and overthrows his father to become kingPrometheus"forelearner" son of Iapetus (Titan) mixed earth and water "into the image of gods" and created man (according to Ovid) inventive intelligenceMeconegods and mortals gather to feast together Prometheus divides the slaughtered ox gives the mortals the best (appearing as the worst), and the gods the worst (appearing as the best) Zeus is angered by the trick and takes fire away from the mortalsTheft of FirePrometheus hides fire in a fennel stalk and gives it back to men men must not labor to keep the flame alight and no longer feast with the godsPrometheus' PunishmentZeus, enraged at the theft of fire, chains Prometheus to a cliff where an eagle was sent to feast upon his liverPrometheus UnboundHeracles encounters Prometheus in his wanderings and kills the eagle, freeing him Zeus didn't mind, because Prometheus revealed the prophecy about the Nereid Thetis' child becoming greater than his father. Zeus, who admired Thetis, sent her to be married to a mortal, who then produced AchillesPandorathe first woman sent by Zeus to punish man for the theft of fire created by Hephaestus with water and clay she is given a (dubious) gift by each of the gods etiology for the origin of woman, marriage, and suffering only Hope remains in the jarFive Races of manno creation story in the Theogony The Works and Days tell of the five racesRace of Goldcreated by gods "when Cronus was ruler in heaven" no toil, ageless, died "like a dream" Zeus had them covered by the earth now "kindly spirits, guards and defenders of mortals"Race of Silversecond inferior race less intelligent than gold, violent, impious destroyed by Zeus in angerRace of Bronzemade by Zeus "terrible and warlike" did not farm, killed each other in violent battles went into HadesRace of Heroesmade by Zeus "braver and juster by far" called "half-gods" family of Oedipus, heroes of the Trojan War some taken to the "isles of the blessed"Race of IronHesiod's own age "unending labor and warfare" in the future, Zeus will destroy this race too and create an even worse oneThe Universal Floodin Sumerian, Akkadian, and Hebrew myth god creates flood because of overpopulation/noise/wickedness god saves pious man (Ziusudra/Atrahasis/Noah) and family with a great boatOvid's Floodin Metamorphoses Zeus is angered at man's wickedness and lack of reverence toward the gods decides to destroy them, but fears the loss of sacrifices promises "new race" of men fears setting the earth aflame, sends water Deucalion (son of Prometheus) and his wife Pyrrha happen to survive Themis tells them to throw rocks (bones of the mother earth) behind them and men regenerate "like statues"Hellenson of Deucalion and Pyrrha after the great flood sent by Zeus gives his name to the whole Greek race; the Helleneseponymthe person whose name is given to a place, people, city, or institutionMount OlympusSeat of the GodsZeus"Lord of the Sky" Temple at Olympia cunning intelligence (from swallowing Metis) fearsome warrior (thunderbolts) weather ("cloud-gatherer") ensures justice (custom) is done protector of xenia (guest friendship) eagle (king of birds) and bullAegis"goat skin" shield inspired terror in all who beheld it lent to Athena, often worn as breastplateXenia"a formal institution of friendship" host-guest relationship applied to the entire family and descendantsMoerae"fates" children of Night, or Zeus/Themis(law) Clotho - spinner, makes the thread Lachesis - apportioner, measures it Atropos - she who cannot be turned aside, cuts itGracespersonify the feminine qualities that make young women attractive to men from Zeus/Eurynome(Oceanid)Musesinspire poets and musicians from Zeus/Mnemosyne(memory) invoked by HesiodEuropa and the BullZeus (in bull form) takes daughter of Phoenician King on his back to Greece Continent named for herLeda and the SwanZeus fathers Helen (from swan form) and Polydeuces Castor(twin to Polydeuces) and Clytemnestra from husband, Tyndareus Comedy - Helen born from eggGanymede and the EagleTrojan prince Abducted by Zeus (eagle form) and taken to Olympus as wine-pourer for the gods Fluid male sexualityHera"Queen of Heaven" Temple in Argos and Samos Last wife of Zeus goddess of marriage, offspring fertility in anger at Zeus' infidelities, gives birth to Hephaestus asexually cows ("cow-eyed") Ares - only offspring w/ZeusPunishment of IoZeus falls in love with Io changes into a cloud to seduce her transforms Io into a cow when Hera becomes suspicious Hera asks for the cow, Zeus cannot refuse Hera sends a gadfly to chase Io Io roams the earth, ends up in Egypt, couples with Zeus, and transforms back into a womanPunishment of Heraclesson of Zeus/Alcmene angered, Hera tries to destroy him from birth she pursues him throughout life drives him mad so that he kills his family forced into slavery and must complete 12 laborsDeception of ZeusIn Illiad, 9th year of Trojan War Hera wished to aid the Greeks against Zeus borrows Aphrodite's belt and distracts him with lust until he falls asleepPoseidon"Lord of the Deep" Temple in Corinth sea; also rivers and freshwater springs trident weapon/tool "earthshaker" connection to horses and chariots Married to Amphitrite, NereidTheseusson of Zeus/Aethra(wife of Athenian kin Aegeus) he and Cretan king, Minos, have a contest of divine parents Minos calls on Zeus - thunderbolt Theseus jumps into water and travels to Poseidon's palace at the bottom of the seaPelops and Poseidonserved to the gods by father, Tantalus Tantalus is punished and Pelops is brought back to life by boiling him (with ivory shoulder) so beautiful that Poseidon falls instantly in love ultimately returned to mortal realm falls in love with Hippodamia is given winged chariot and tireless horses by Poseidon to win a race against her father for her hand in marriageHades"Kind of the Dead" underworld married to Persephone "bride of Hades" - girl who dies a virginanthropomorphismportraying gods in the shape of men and women who act and think like human beingsnymphs"young women" married women who have yet to give birthDemetergoddess of the grain and harvest fertility of earth mother, with Zeus, of PersephonePersephoneDaughter of Demeter/Zeus abducted by Hades and becomes his bridePoseidon and DemeterPoseidon lusts after Demeter follows her in her search for her daughter she turns into a mare to hide he turns into a stallion and takes her anywaysKore"daughter" or "girl"Demeter and PersephonePersephone is abducted while gathering flowers Demeter searches for her Helius tells Demeter of what happened, blaming Zeus she goes to live amongst men sends a plague to harvest and all crops fail gods are upset b/c of no sacrifice Zeus sends Hermes to retrieve Persephone she returns, but not before eating pomegranate seeds so she must spend part of the year with HadesDemeter and DemophoonDisguised as a mortal, Demeter is taken in by the daughters of Celeus Demeter becomes nurse for Celeus' son Demophoon she treats him as her own, anointing him and plunging him into flames Metaneira discovered the nightly practice and Demeter reveals herself as she leaves in angerHestiagoddess of the hearth part of daily life Hearth at center of every home Vestal virgins at Rome dedicated to care of sacred fire of the templeEleusinian MysteriesThe cult of the mother goddess Demeter and a very popular Athenian festival celebrated each year for the mother and the maiden, Persephone. This cult promised all its members a blissful afterlife.ApolloGod of prophecy, healing, music from Zeus/Leto(Titan) Brother of Artemis bow and arrow light/sunDelian ApolloHera, angered at another one of Zeus' exploits, declares she cannot give birth on terra firma Leto wanders in search of place to give birth Delos is a "floating" island After 9 days of labor, Leto still hasn't delivered Hera is induced (through bribery) to attend Twins born beneath the sacred palmDephian ApolloDelphi, most important oracle in Ancient world Python "a great fat savage beast, who used to do dreadful things, not only to the thin-legged shee, but to their owners as well" Apollo shoots Python (dragon) with his "death-dealing arrow" = Pythian ApolloOmphalos"navel" stone swallowed by Cronus instead of Zeus at DelphiPythiaprophetess at Delphi named after the dragon Python slain by ApolloCassandrabeautiful daughter of Priam/Hecabe Apollo lusted after her she demanded that he gave her the power of prophecy in return for sleeping with her after she got the gift, she refused to sleep with him he added the condition that she would always speak the truth, but no one would ever believe herDaphnenymph daughter of river-god, Peneus rejected Apollo he chased her into the mountains she prayed to her father and he turned her into a laurel treeSibylhe gave her as many years of life as grains of rice that she could hold in her hands after the gift, she refused to sleep with him he neglected to add everlasting youth to the giftAsclepiusgod of medicine from Apollo/Coronis(mortal) had a staff with a serpent wound about it Coronis slept with a mortal while pregnant Apollo snatched his son from her burning corpse on the pyre the centaur Chiron taught Asclepius to become a master healer he tried to raise the dead, but was killedHermes"God of Wayfarers" from Zeus/Maia (nymph/daugher of Atlas) herald of the gods trickster, thief messenger, traveler, conductor of souls (both death and sleep) Traveler's hat, staff, winged sandalshermsmall pillar with a human head, usually bearded, and an erect phalluscaduceusa staff intertwined with two snakes copulatingpsychopompos"soul guide"Argeiphontes"slayer of Argus" Argus was a hundred-eyed monster who watched over Io for Hera Hermes killed himHermes and ApolloHermes steals Apollo's cattle, making them walk backwards so they cannot be tracked invents sausage and leather back to the cradle, he is a baby after all plots to steal Apollo's treasure from Delphi Apollo tracks down Hermes, picks him up, but drops him when he farts Zeus sends them to go find the cattle together Apollo marvels at the hides Hermes distracts Apollo from tying him up by playing the lyre Hermes offers the lyre to Apollo and invents the reed pipePanminor deity from Hermes/Dryope(Nymph)? inhabited woods and wilds associated with shepherdsSyrinxNymph was lusted after by Pan ran from him until changed into a reed he invented the panpipe after slashing down all the reeds looking for herAres"Incarnation of Blood Lust" from Zeus/Hera god of war adultery with Aphrodite father to many, but no wifeHephaestus' RevengeHelius tells Hephaestus of his wife's infidelity he creates a trap for Her and her lover, Ares When the lovers go to bed, they are trapped in his web He calls all the gods who come and laugh at the trapped loversHephaestus"God of Smiths" from Hera (asexually) god of fire, vocanoes blacksmith unattractive, crippled leg unhappily married to AphroditeHephaestus' ExileZeus threw Hephaestus from Olympus because he sided with Hera in a dispute landed in Lemnos second version says Hera banished him because of his lameness and he was received by Thetis returned by giving his mother a golden throne that trapped her with a fine mesh. He only came back when Dionysus got him drunkArms of AchillesAchilles' armor is taken from Patroclus by Hector Thetis, Achilles's mother, asks Hephaestus to make him a new setAphrodite"Goddess of Sexual Love" Cyprus and Cythera love and desire married to Hephaestus born from sperm from uranus' penis in the sea; others say daughter of Zeus/Dione "the Foamborn" sexually promiscuousAnchisesTrojan shepherd Zeus often succumbs to her power, so he makes her lust after Anchises she disguises herself as a young virgin and tells him she was brought by Hermes to sleep with him after they sleep together, her godhead is revealed she tells him that he will be father to Aeneas, who will rule the Trojans and he will not suffer as long as he does not reveal the motherSappholyric poet (600 BC) wrote erotic poetry about women portrays a very personal relationship with the goddessEros (Cupid)Aphrodite's son rascally child shown with wings and bow and arrows, wound from which causes one to fall in lovePriapusborn of Aphrodite and Hermes/Dionysus gigantic penis, outsized sexual appetiteHermaphroditusborn of Hermes/Aphrodite born a man, but fused together with the nymph Salmacis who loved him so much that she would not let goAthena"Mistress of the City" Daughter of Zeus, born from his head after he swallowed Metis virgin goddess, "Pallas" masculine attributes, warrior, dressed in armor including Zeus' aegis owl ("owl-eyed") cunning wisdom crafts, especially weavingAthena and AthensAthena and Poseidon contested to by Athens' patron deity Poseidon struck the ground and made a spring Athena offered the olive tree (now illegal to cut down olive tree in Athens) Parthenon temple to Athena Parthenos (Virgin Athena)ErichthoniusAthena went to Hephaestus to have new weapons made Hephaestus was overcome with desire and tries to rape him she escapes, but not before he ejaculates on her thigh she wipes the semen onto the gound and Erichthonius is born from the earth and becomes king of AthensPanathenaeaGreat festival held every four years, lasted for 12 days founded by Erichthonius in thanks for Athens' protection great procession to the acropolis to present gifts to statue of Athena PoliasArachneLydian girl claimed that her weaving was as good as Athena's Athena, as an old woman, tries to get Arachne to renounce her boast the two compete Athena weaves the story of her contest with Poseidon Arachne weaves stories of gods' sexual dalliances Athena attacks her and transforms her and offspring into spidersBath of PallasTiresias sees Athena bathing in a mountain stream he is blinded his mother begs for a reversal of the curse, but instead Athena gives him the gift of prophecyArtemisPotnia Theron "Mistress of Animals" Temple at Ephesus daughter of Zeus/Leto sister of Apollo protector of animals, punishes mistreatment virgin huntress, roams the woods accompanied by animals of the hunt delights in killing cult worship by girls before marriage Agamemnon forced to sacrifice his daughter to placate Artemis before the Greeks can sail to TroyOrionGiant son of Poseidon impatient at courting a king's daughter, he raped her Artemis placed a scorpion on his head, which poisoned and killed him Orion is forever fleeing Scorpio in the starsActaeonActaeon, Theban prince, saw Artemis bathing she turns him into a stag so that he cannot tell anyone of what he saw he is torn apart by his hunting dogsNiobeNiobe boasts that she is more blessed than Leto because she gave birth to many, instead of two the twins kill all of her children in punishment Niobe, overcome with grief, is turned into a rock and continues to mournVirgin WorshipTemple at Brauron Athenian initiation rite celebrated by pre-pubescent girls origins in Agamemnon's sacrifice of his daughter Iphigenia Girls called "bears," symbolic sacrifices to the goddess