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Cells Test Study Guide
Terms in this set (61)
Basic unit of life
thin, flexible barrier around a cell and it gives the cell stability. It also regulates what enters and leaves the cell
A rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms. Provides protection and support.
A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended and it surronds everything
A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus, all have cell walls, first cells, all are bacteria, and are very simple cells
A unicellular or multicellular cell that contains a nucleus, and is everything but bacteria
It consists of DNA bound to protein & condenses to form chromosomes when a cell divides.
Found in Plants and some other organisms, Use energy from the sun to make food for cells (Photosynthesis), Large stacks of membranes and contain chlorophyll (green)
Small dense region in nucleus, and the assembly of ribosomes begin here
Double membrane surrounding nucleus, has pores that allow things to travel in and out, and it surrounds the nucleus
Structure that helps support the cell with shape and movement, is a network of protein filaments, include microtubules, and moves organelles within the cell
Small particle made of RNA and protein, and its job is to make protein (based on info coming from DNA)
Internal membrane system, components of cell membrane are built , and some other proteins are modified
Enzymes attach carbs and lipids to proteins, proteins move here after ER, proteins are packaged and sent to final destination, looks like a flat stack of pancakes
Breaks down lipids, carbs, and proteins by destructive enzymes to be used by the cell, removes debris that may clutter up the cell
Saclike structure for storage (Water, salts, and protein), more common in plants, provides structure and strength
Releases energy for the cell to use for growth and development and movement. Uses Energy from food. Have outer and inner membrane. (Inner is folded)
Hair-like structures and assist in cell movement
Tail-like structure and moves in whip-like movements. Ex. Sperm cell
A membrane bound sac that contains materials involved in transport of the cell.
A non-membrane-bounded dense region in a prokaryotic cell where the DNA is concentrated.
A structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells that functions as a microtubule-organizing center and is important during cell division. A centrosome has two centrioles.
structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division
Three parts of the cell theory
All living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from preexisting cells
Similarities between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
cell membrane, ribosomes, DNA, cytoplasm
chloroplasts, cell wall, one large central vacuole, nucleus is usually pushed off to the side, and is rectangular-ish
Lysosomes, many small vacuoles, nucleus is usually in the center, and is roundish
What is the cell membrane made of?
phospholipids, proteins, and other macromolecules
a property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot
How is the cell membrane like a fluid mosaic model?
The phospholipid bilayer behaves more like a fluid than a solid. It also moves slowly like honey or syrup
A lipid that contains phosphorus
What does the phospholipid bilayer make up?
Are the fatty acid tails in a phospholipid hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
Are the phosphate group heads hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
How are phospholipids arranged in the cell membrane?
tail to tail as a bilayer
Are the phosphate group heads polar or non polar?
Are the fatty acid tails in a phospholipid polar or non polar?
What does the fat composition in the cell membrane affect?
Unsaturated fatty acids affect flexibility (fluid) and makes the membrane less viscous. Fat composition also affect cholesterol in the membrane
Proteins that determine the membrane's specific functions
Do all cell membranes have the same collection of proteins?
It is loosely bound to surface membrane and they are cell surface identity markers (antigens)
Penetrate lipid bilayer, usually across whole membrane, transmembrane protein, and transport proteins
The process of moving molecules and other substances across the cell membrane. Requires no energy and molecules move from high concentration to low concentration (solute molecules move into an area of high concentration to low)
The movement off chemical substances usually across the membrane. Requires energy (ATP) and molecules are moving against concentration gradient (low to high concentration). Involves carrier proteins
Examples of passive transport
diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
examples of active transport
endocytosis, exocytosis, sodium potassium pump
Molecules in a solution move from an area of high concentration to low concentration
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes
when the concentration of two solutions is the same
Sodium Potassium Pump
The process of moving sodium and potassium across the cell membrane involving ATP
When the membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle (think of Pac-Man)
The process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
How does exocytosis occur?
The substance is released from the cell through the vesicle and then the substance fuses to the cell surface
What does cholesterol do in the cell membrane?
What do carbohydrates do in the cell membrane
Each cell must copy it's genetic information before cell division begins. In eukaryotic cells genetic info is passed on by chromosomes (made up of DNA)
Root word of organelle
Similarities between animal cells and plant cells
Mitochondria, ribosomes, ER, vacuoles, nucleus, nuclear membrane, cell membrane, cytoplasm, Golgi apparatus
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