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JTC 100 CSU Final Study Guide
Terms in this set (54)
What early examples were precursors of public relations?
The Mayans created it.
Greeks had "publicity agents".
Pope Gregory utilized propaganda.
Sons of Liberty used slogans, symbols, and special events.
What were the four key innovations and the contributors to each?
1. Service to the Media (Ivy Lee)
2. Government Companies (US Committee in Public Info.)
3. Application of Social Science (Edward Bernays)
4. Strategic Counseling (Arthur W Page)
Who was Edward Bernays (his contribution and historical incident)
Coined "public relations counsel". Recognized you could observe patterns of how people behave (social science) and control them with the use of propaganda.
CSU PR Incident and Response
Spring Creek Flood of 1997. Library damaged lost half a million books. Stressed there were no deaths or injuries to maintain their image.
What are responsibilities for PR professionals besides crisis management?
Being the middle person. Knowing the public. Promotion, issue management, relationship building, government relations.
What does RACE stand for?
What is the difference between the model today vs. early model?
Early model: top down
Today: back and forth communication between organizations and publics (horizontal)
What is the definition of propaganda?
Communication strategically placed either as an advertisement or as a publicity to gain public support for a special issue, program, or policy.
What is the definition of public relations?
Management of communication between an organization and key publics.
Identify the difference between advertising, marketing, and public relations.
Advertising= Purchase of space or time in a mass media to communicate a message (promotes product/service)
Marketing= Wider focus on the market (consumer and demand)
Public Relations: Communication between an organization and key publics.
Why do we need PR?
Increased complexity (big business government), pluralism (diversity of ideas and people), rise of the mass media, dependance on information.
What are key publics?
Customer, community, government, employees, investors. Maintain a stable pattern of interactions between publics and organizations.
What is the history of the Internet? Why how did it start?
Started because Russians launched Sputnik. America's military realized communications were more vulnerable from space, so they started a network.
Who was Tim Burners Lee and his contribution?
"Father of WWW". Created a system of hyperlinks between related texts.
What is new media's impact on legacy media (newspapers, magazines, books, TV, movies) and how have they adapted?
Diverted attention from traditional media which lead to competition. Altered how traditional media operated to convergence. Made websites, advertised online. Makes legacy media obsolete.
What is user generated content?
Any for of content that we have created. (Wikipedia, YouTube, etc).
How have Craigslist, Monster.com, etc. impacted other media?
Removed viability of classified advertisements in newspapers. Impacted print journalism.
How has Google transformed advertising?
Customized advertisements depending on searches.
What is the digital divide? What helps to mitigate those without easy access?
The gulf between those who have ready access to computers and the internet and those who do not. Mandated by law, require competition to lower costs, subsidize the poor (treat media as a utility).
What is the annual per person amount spent on media?
What did the video interviews with those in the book and newspaper industries say about the Internet?
Both have positive responses. It has enhanced how they do books and newspapers. Can have a website and communicate with readers. Add in additional pieces. Not a set cycle anymore. Constantly updating to compete with other media.
What three things moved us from a traditional society to a mass society?
Industrialization: corporate systems
What are the three periods of media effects?
Simple Powerful Effects (1900-1940)
Limited Effects (1940-1960)
Complex Powerful Effects (1960-Present)
The radio broadcast of War of the Worlds led researchers to ask what? This led to a transition from what period into a new one called what?
Why was not everyone scared? Why did some not panic? Led to Limited Effects (1940-1960)
Rene Descartes contributed what idea to the study of media effects?
Reason can deliver us to Truth/Knowledge. Challenged those in power. Challenged especially the church. Challenged by Marx.
What are some metaphors for simple powerful effects?
"Magic Buller" and "Hypodermic Needle". Quick, profound, instantaneous, and powerful.
What trends contributed to the development of modern media research?
recognizing propaganda (what it is and how it works), recognizing public opinion (what people know and think), social science, marketing research.
What were the reasons people panicked during Orson Welles' "War of the Worlds" broadcast?
Radio is trusted, show well done, historical timing, people tune in late, lack of critical thinking skills, media powerful but not all the time.
What was the point of "Personal Influence, the Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communication" study?
Influence of "Opinion Leaders"
What is the two-step flow method? What study showed this?
Election outcomes in Ohio County. Message first filtered by opinion leaders before moving to a recipient. People are influenced by other people more than the media.
What is the "uses and gratifications" theory?
Use of media to satisfy needs, moving away from audience as "victims"
George Gerbner's idea about cultivation says what?
Television is responsible for a major cultivation process according to which people are exposed systematically to a selective view of society in almost every aspect of life, a view which tends to shape their beliefs and values accordingly.
What is Gerbner's "Mean World Theory"?
Violence related content of mass media makes viewers believe that the world is more dangerous than it actually is.
What is agenda setting?
Observed by Walter Lippmann in the 1920s. The process whereby the mass media determine what we think and worry about.
What is Karl Marx's theory?
In the west, we live in a industrial, urban, and modern world where the economic system largely calls the shots.
What did the Frankfurt scholars believe?
Mass mediated culture plays a role in maintaining those in power in the U.S. they recognized that the culture industries was controlled by corporations. Concerned with power of media institution and their ability to influence people.
What are culture industries?
The system of cultural production dominated by film, radio, broadcasting, newspapers, and magazines. Was controlled by advertising and commercial goals and served to create subservience to the system of consumer capitalism. Preferred a culture that would criticize and answer the status quo and not simply maintain it.
What is commodification?
To take cultural artifacts from the public and sell them back to us. Take art and music and turn it into a product of profit. Lost creative element.
Explain Noam Chomsky's theory.
The media tells us what and how to think. Fool people into believing things. Propaganda to control.
What are framing devices and who is the researcher associated with this study?
Todd Gitlin. Made in a way so people only see a part of a story. Polarization, focus on violence, and trivialization.
Semiotics are what?
The study of signs and symbols as elements of communicative behavior.
What did Janice Radway study?
"Reading the Romance". Found readers use novels for escape to resist (claim personal identity), conflicted feelings (guilt). Involved in "interpretive communities".
What are some suggested ways to minimize media effects?
Becoming media literate, checking sources, giving parents more opinions and giving more information about TV shows.
Researched James Carey argued what?
The construction of symbolic reality, represents, maintains, adapts, and shares for beliefs for society in time. Media consumption is a ritual in transmission and conforms our pre existing beliefs. Daily basis.
What is affluenza?
We need to keep buying things to stay fulfilled.
What did Roland Barthes argue?
People play with messages. We take away different things from media.
What is gamification?
Using video game skills and conventions to solve real-world problems in medicine, health, policy, personal responsibility, in fact any issue that humans face. Ultimate use of games for good.
What is the average age of most gamers?
The average gamer is 31 years old.
What are the five groups of adopters in Diffusions of Innovations theory?
Innovators, Early Adopters, Early Majority, Late Majority, Laggards.
What are the five steps in innovation decision?
Knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, confirmation.
What event ultimatley prompted the creation of the internet in the U.S.?
Russians launching Sputnik into space.
Critical media researchers have followed the spirit of Marx's belief that:
We are influenced in the western world by industrialization, urbanization, and modernity. Contemporary society has a tendency to rob us of what we should normally experience, attain, or otherwise earn; the economic base or system largely calls the shots.
Social theorist Roland Barthes argues that we (BLANK) media texts.
Who was Ivy Lee his contribution and historic incident?
Declaration of Principles (openness, supply information, accuracy). Colorado's Ludlow Massacre lee responded.
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