U.S. History Chapter 19 Test: Cold War
chapter 19 review study guide questions
Terms in this set (68)
What did the United States and the Soviet Union compete for after World War II?
What was the competition for international dominance called?
What fueled the Americans mistrust of the Soviet Union after World War II?
After World War II, what was Stalin determined to maintain?
Soviet influence in Europe
What did the Soviets begin to develop after World War II?
What event started the nuclear arms race in 1949 between the United States and the Soviet Union?
Soviets tested the first atomic bomb
What was the Atomic Energy Act of 1946?
promoted peacetime uses of atomic energy and nuclear weapons research.
What happened in 1946 that forced President Truman to pursue an aggressive foreign policy approach?
Communist rebels fought against the Greek monarchy
What did the Soviet Union do to Turkey in 1946?
forced Turkey to give up sole control of the Dardanelles giving the Soviets dominance in the Mediterranean.
What did Allied leaders do to Germany after World War II?
divided Germany into 4 zones
Who controlled the industrial part of Germany?
United States, Great Britain, and France
Who controlled the rural part of Germany?
What did the Allied leaders do to Germany after World War II?
1. destroyed the Nazi Party
2. reestablished local government
3. rebuilt German industry
What did Japan do with its government under MacArthur's direction after World War II?
adopted a new constitution
What was written in Japan's new constitution?
1. voting rights for women
2. granted freedom of religion
3. prohibited Japan from having a military
4. gave land to Japanese farmers
5. allowed labor unions to develop
What were the Nuremberg trials?
German war crimes trials
What was decided at the Nuremberg trials regarding German leaders?
leaders were charged with;
1. planning for war
2. committing war crimes
3. crimes against humanity
(sentenced to death)
What was decided in Tokyo after World War II regarding Japanese leaders?
7 Japanese leaders sentenced to death including Tojo
What was the United Nations?
international organization that works for world peace.
After World War II, what happened to European Jews?
moved to Palestine
Did the Arabs support Jews being moved to Palestine?
How did the Arabs respond to the United Nations attempting to divide Palestine into 2 states, one for Jews and the other for Arabs?
Arabs reacted violently organizing military forces against Israel to help reclaim Palestine.
What did the United Nations do in Israel in 1949?
divided Jerusalem into Arab and Israeli zones
What happened in Korea in 1948?
North Korea and South Korea set up separate governments.
What happened in Korea in 1950?
North Korea invaded South Korea
Which Korean country did the United States support in the Korean War?
Why did Truman believe South Korea falling would be internationally devastating?
If South Korea was allowed to fall, Communist leaders would be encouraged to override nations closer to their own shores.
Who was winning the Korean War initially?
North Korea forced the United States and South Korea to fall back.
What did General MacArthur do in Korea in 1950?
launched a counterattack recapturing Seoul (South Korean capital)
What happened in 1950 that forced the United Nations to fall back?
China entered the war
What did General MacArthur propose with China entering the Korean War?
Major expansion of the War;
1. blockade of China's coast
2. bomb its interior with nuclear bombs
3. send South Korean forces to invade China's mainland
Did President Truman support nuclear war with China?
No, he did not want to start another world war
What was the Korean war like in 1951?
stalemate causing the death toll to mount.
How did the Korean war becoming a stalemate affect President Truman in 1952?
Truman decided not to run for reelection of President
Why did President Eisenhower get elected in 1952?
Eisenhower promised to resist communism and end the Korean war.
What was the Marshall Plan?
Truman gave $17 billion in economic aid to Europe
Which countries made up West Germany in 1948?
Great Britain, France, and the United States
What did the Soviets do in response to the formation of West Germany?
set up a communist government in East Germany known as the German Democratic Republic.
What did the United States and the western European nations organize in 1949?
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
What did the countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization agree to do?
defend each other in the event of an outside attack.
Who was named the supreme commander of NATO?
How did the Soviet Union respond in 1955 to the organization of NATO?
formed the Warsaw Pact
What did President Eisenhower believe was critical to ending communist expansion?
nuclear arms and technology
What did Iran do in 1951?
nationalized British-owned oil fields
What did Eisenhower do when Iran nationalized British-owned oil fields?
Eisenhower suspended aid to Iran
authorized a military coup against Iran
Where did Eisenhower order military action in 1954?
What did Egypt do in 1956?
nationalized the Suez Canal restricting Israel from using it.
What countries did Eisenhower design a cease fire resolution for in 1956?
Egypt and Israel
What was the Eisenhower doctrine?
offered military aid to any Middle Eastern nation seeking help in resisting Communist aggression.
What did Soviet Leader Khrushchev do to Hungary in 1956?
crushed a Hungarian revolt demanding reform with Soviet forces.
What was Eisenhower's fear regarding United States intervention in Hungary?
U.S. intervention would lead to nuclear war with the Soviet Union.
How did the United States assist Hungary in the 1950's?
eased immigration laws to allow refugees into the United States.
What did Khrushchev do in 1960 that increased tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union?
Khrushchev shot down an American spy plane over the Soviet Union.
What did Congress create to advise the president on strategic matters?
National Security Council
What did the House UnAmerican Activities Committee investigate?
investigated members of peace organizations, political groups, and labor unions that may have communist ties.
What was the Internal Security Act of 1950?
required Communist Party members to register with the federal government.
imposed strict controls on immigrants from communist countries
What did Senator McCarthy develop in 1950 that brought national attention?
list of known Communists who work for the government.
What happened to some federal employees as a result of McCarthy's list?
many federal employees lost their jobs after being labeled a security risk.
What military technology was created in 1952 as a response to increased tension between the United States and the Soviet Union?
What did anxiety over nuclear war encourage many Americans to do?
seek comfort by turning to religion.
What did many Americans do when the need for religion increased?
invested money into religious institutions and Evangelists such as Billy Graham.
What did Congress do in that reflected religious appeal?
added "One Nation Under God" to the Pledge of Allegiance"
added "In God We Trust" to United States coins
What did the Federal Civil Defense Administration do in 1951?
educated the public on what to do in case of a nuclear attack.
How did nuclear weapons concern the public besides nuclear attacks?
radioactive fallout (by product of nuclear explosions)
What did some citizens build in their yards in case of a nuclear attack?
What did the Soviets invent in 1957?
launched Sputnik, the first artificial satellite into orbit
What did President Eisenhower create in 1958?
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
What was the National Defense Education Act?
provided funds to improve education in science, mathematics, and foreign languages.