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Jazz History - Jazz Composition in the 1950s
Terms in this set (70)
How did the nature of Jazz composition change in the 1950s?
- During the 1950s, the nature of jazz composition changed from a practice that was influenced by European classical music (Third Stream) to one that mined the jazz past, including New Orleans polyphony, stride piano, breaks, cadenzas, and standard jazz and pop themes.
- During this period, nonperforming full-time jazz composers made their appearance.
What was different about the jazz composers after 1950?
During this period, nonperforming full-time jazz composers made their appearance.
Who were the four important composers in the 1950s?
3. Gil Evans
4. George Russell
What was Monk's composition approach?
Monk worked with blues and standard song forms.
What was Mingus's composition approach?
Mingus worked with and expanded conventional forms, adding effects from gospel, ragtime, bop, classical music, and other sources.
What was Gil Evan's composition approach?
Gil Evans radically transformed the work of other
What was George Russell's composition approach?
George Russell introduced modalism and new approaches to harmony, changing the relation between composition and improvisation.
Who is the most performed of all Jazz composers (after Ellington)
Whose work has been adapted for every
kind of jazz style and for classical music.
How was Monk considered in his early years?
During his early years, Monk was considered eccentric and a mediocre composer. Today he is much appreciated.
Who wrote "'Round Midnight"?
What was the most imporant of Monk's early pieces?
What album did Monk record with Sonny Rollins and Max Roach?
What did Monk do when he became famous?
What did Monk use as the basis of his compositions?
Monk used traditional song forms (A A B A) and blues as a basis for his compositions.
How did Monk alter standard harmonies?
Sometimes he altered standard harmonies with whole-tone and chromatic scales:
What was Monk's treatment of dissonance?
He commonly used dissonances, which had up to that time been widely considered mistakes. Minor seconds are common. By accepting these dissonances, Monk changed the way we hear jazz.
What was considered Monk's first masterpiece?
What is the unusual structure of "Thelonious" ?
The form is the typical A A B A, but the bridge is ten bars long and the final A has a two-bar coda.
What is one of Monk's best known masterpieces?
What piece is "Rhythm-a-ning" based on?
it is based on "rhythm changes" and a melody that draws from Ellington's "Ducky Wucky" (1932) and Mary Lou Williams's "Walkin' and Swingin'," which was written for Andy Kirk in 1936.
Which composer was a spokesman linking jazz and the civil rights movement;
Charles Mingus - as a memoirist, he shed light on the struggle for equality among African American artists.
Who became notorious for his bandstand comments?
Whose compositions could be fastidiously arranged or more collaborative in nature?
Who started to hire arrangers and copyists to help organize his work.
Who wrote "Boogie Stop Shuffle" ?
What is "Boogie Stop Shuffle" based on?
Based on a boogie-woogie shuffle,
Who was primarily an arranger who lifted the art of arranging to the level of composition.
What album caused Evans to be recognized nationally?
Miles Ahead (with Davis)
What was Miles Ahead comprised of?
It was made up of a series of trumpet concertos
with composed transitional interludes instead of silences between selections.
What form is Evans best known for?
His concerto form
Who arranged "King Porter Stomp" ?
What are two key features of "King Porter Stomp"?
1. dissonant harmonies and bop-like phrases while making the music swing.
2. The interchange between Adderley and the ensemble is notable.
What were two ways George Russell was unique?
1. He was not an instrumentalist; he was exclusively a composer/bandleader.
2. Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization, Volume One: The Art and
Science of Tonal Gravity (1953, rev. 2001). Russell is considered a jazz
intellectual and not for the general public.
Who began incorporating funk and disco into his compositions?
Who is "the father of modal jazz"?
How was Russell inspired to develop his theory?
- Russell was inspired to develop his theory by a question from Miles Davis about the relationship among chords.
- Russell started to analyze chords in
terms of the scales that went with them.
- He realized that if you reduce the number of chords, improvisers will have to think more melodically.
What does Russell argue in 'the Lydian Concept'?
In the Lydian Concept, Russell argues that we hear the greatest "unity and finality" in the C Lydian scale (a C scale with an F#).
What was Russell's view on tonality?
He rejected major and minor keys and instead advocated various scales so as to eliminate a tonal center.
Who wrote "Concerto for Billy the Kid"?
Who introduced Bill Evans to Miles Davis?
What was Russell's intent for "Concerto for Billy the Kid"?
Russell conceived of this piece as a showcase for Evans.
How would you describe Bill Evan's solo on "Concerto for Billy the Kid"?
Evans's solo here is rigorous, very different from the meditative playing that came later.
For whom was Russell's Jazz Workshop album a hit? Who rejected it?
The Jazz Workshop album was a hit with the critics but not a commercial success. Nevertheless, there was enough interest for him to tour with a small group and to sign with other labels.
Who taught at the University of Sweden and the New
England Conservatory of Music?
Although __________ was not technically a composer, he was someone who "elevated arranging virtually to the art of composition."
Although Charles Mingus made his reputation in New York City, he was raised and trained in
at which institution of higher education did George Russell teach following his return to the United States in 1969?
New England Conservatory
Charles Mingus consistently drew inspiration from the Swing Era bandleader and composer
Charles Mingus created approximately ________ compositions.
Charles Mingus was a virtuoso on the
Charles Mingus's "Fables of Faubus" was a protest sparked by
the integration of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.
Charles Mingus's small ensemble, a loosely organized group of musicians willing to perform his work, was known as the
From the 1950s to the 1970s, Gil Evans had a long working relationship with
George Russell wrote "Concerto for Billy the Kid" to highlight the following soloist:
George Russell wrote a book on music theory titled
Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization.
George Russell's explorations of jazz theory helped pave the way for this jazz technique.
Gil Evans is known for his use of ______ form, which features an individual soloist.
In addition to his compositions, Thelonious Monk was known as a ______ soloist.
Monk's approach to improvisation is striking in its use of
One of the earliest, and best known, of Thelonious Monk's compositions is
" 'Round Midnight."
The jazz composer Thelonious Monk wrote approximately ______ pieces of music.
Thelonious Monk was known for his
mood swings and episodes of idiosyncratic behavior.
Thelonious Monk's professional career began in the
rhythm section at Minton's Playhous
Which composer was among the first to pay tribute in his music to great jazz musicians of the past, such as Lester Young and Jelly Roll Morton?
Which composer/arranger advocated superimposing different scales, so as to eliminate a tonal center?
Which composer/arranger was born out of wedlock to a racially mixed couple?
Which composition did Gil Evans famously rearrange in 1958?
King Porter Stomp"
Which innovation did Gil Evans introduce on the groundbreaking 1957 album Miles Ahead?
transitional interludes between tracks
While his 1957 recordings with John Coltrane are deservedly famous, Thelonious Monk's longest and most consistent musical partnership was with the tenor saxophonist
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