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Chapter 7 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (50)
the force that holds two atoms together
What two forces of attraction can form chemical bonds?
chemical bonds can form by the attraction between the positive nucleus of one time and the negative electron of another atom, or by the attraction between positive and negative ions
Why do electrons tend to react?
electrons tend to react to acquire the stable electron structure of a noble gas
When does a cation form?
a positive ion (cation) forms when an atom loses one or more valence electrons in order to attain a noble gas configuration
Why are metal atoms reactive?
metal ions are reactive because they lose valence electrons easily
What happens to nonmetals?
nonmetals gain the number of electrons that, when added to their valence electrons, equals 8
How do you make an ion name?
add -ide to the end of the element to make ion name
electric force that holds oppositely charged particles together in an ionic compound (bond between metal and nonmetal)
compounds which contain an ionic bond
binary ionic compound
contains 2 elements and 1 ionic bond; contain a metallic cation and a nonmetallic anion
What contributes to the physical properties of an ionic compound?
the physical structures of an ionic compound also contribute to their physical properties
What determines the positive and negative ratio of ions in an ionic compound?
in an ionic compound, large number of positive ions and negative ions exist together in a ratio determined by the number of electrons transferred from the metal atom to nonmetal atom
a 3D geometric arrangement of particles in which each positive ion is surrounded by negative ions and each negative ion is surrounded by positive ions
What do the physical properties of matter depend on?
melting point, boiling point, and hardness are physical properties of matter that depend on how strongly the particles that make up the matter are attracted to one another
ionic compound whose aqueous solution (substance dissolved in another substance) conducts an electric current
What is the effect of a strong ionic bond?
ionic bonds are relatively strong, so ionic crystals require a large amount of energy to be broken apart
How does the strong hold of an ion effect ionic crystals?
ionic crystals are hard, rigid, brittle solids due to the strong attractive forces that hold the ions in place
How does an ionic crystal break apart and become brittle?
the crystal breaks apart because the applied force repositions the like-charged ions next to each other; the resulting repulsive force breaks apart the crystal (the crystal shifts, making the like charges go next to each other, which causes a repulse and makes the crystal break apart)
What happens during every chemical reaction?
energy is either absorbed or released
What is a chemical reaction called when energy is absorbed?
What is a chemical reaction called when energy is released?
What type of chemical reaction is always exothermic?
formation of ionic compounds from positive and negative ions
the energy required to separate 1 mol of the ions of an ionic compound
What happens when lattice energy is stronger?
the stronger the lattice energy, the stronger the force of attraction
What is lattice energy directly related to?
the size of the ions bonded (ions are bigger the more lattice energy you have, so cations have less lattice energy than anions, which have more lattice energy....metals (cations) are smaller than nonmetals (anions)
What affects the value of lattice charge?
value of lattice charge is affected by the charge of the ion
How is MgCl2 formed? How many electrons are lost or gained?
positive attraction from Mg attracts to negative attraction of Cl; 2 electrons are lost in Mg and 1 electron is gain in Cl
represents the simplest ratio of the ions involved
What is the overall charge of a formula unit? Why?
the overall charge of a formula unit is zero because the formula unit represents the entire crystal, which is electrically neutral
one atom ion, such as Mg+2 or Br-1
oxidation number/oxidation state
the charge of monotonic ion; the number of electrons transferred from the atom to form the ion (charge of ions)
What is the formula for binary ionic compounds?
the symbol of the cations (metals) is always written first, followed by the symbol of the anion (nonmetal)
ions made up of more than one atom, acts as an individual ion in a compound and its charge applies to the entire group of atoms
a polyatomic ion composed of an element, usually a nonmetal, bonded to one or more oxygen atoms
What is the oxyanion naming for sulfur and nitrogen?
-Identify the ion with the greatest number of oxygen atoms. The ion is named using the root of the nonmetal and suffix -ate.
-Identify the ion with fewer oxygen atoms. The ion is named using the root of the nonmetal and suffix -ite.
What are the two oxyanions for sulfur?
SO4 (2-) Sulfate
What are the two oxyanions for nitrogen?
NO3 (1-) Nitrate
NO2 (1-) Nitrite
What are the five rules of naming ionic compounds?
1. Name the cation followed by the anion. Cation ALWAYS first.
2. For monoatomic cations, use full element name.
3. For monoatomic anions, use of element plus suffix -ide.
4. When you have multiple oxidation numbers of the same element, the name of the chemical formula must indicate the oxidation number of the cation. The oxidation number is written in roman numerals in parentheses after the cation. (transition metals and metals on the right)
5. When the compound contains a polyatomic ion, simply use the name of the polyatomic ion in place of the anion or cation.
the attraction of a metallic cation for delocalized electrons
-metals often form lattices in the solid state
electrons present in the outer energy levels of the bonding metallic atoms are not held by any specific atom and can move easily from one atom to the next (how metallic cations are formed)
electrons sea model
proposes that all the metal atoms in a metallic solid contribute to their valence electrons to form a "sea" of electrons
What are the properties of metals for melting and boiling points?
generally have moderately high melting points and high boiling points; the melting points are not as extreme as boiling points because the cations and electrons are mobile in metal
What are some properties of metals?
metals are malleable (hammered into sheets), they are ductile (drawn out into wire) and are mostly durable; although metallic cations are mobile in a metal, they are strongly attracted to the electron surrounding them and are not easily removed from the metal
What are the thermal and electrical conductivity of metals?
they make good conductors; these same delocalized electrons interact with light, absorbing and releasing photons, thereby creating a luster in metals
What is the hardness and strength of metals?
as the number of delocalized electrons increases, so do the properties of hardness and strength
a mixture of elements that has metallic properties, have wide range of applications
-different properties can result based on your heating and cooling (ex: stainless steal, brass, cast iron)
some atoms in the original metallic solid are replaced by other metals of similar atomic size
ex: sterling silver
formed when the small holes in metallic crystals are filled with smaller atoms (carbon steel) makes iron stronger with the presence of carbon molecules
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