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AP Government Unit 5

Terms in this set (72)

An electoral system is a set of rules that determine how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined. Political electoral systems are organized by governments, while non-political elections may take place in business, non-profit organisations and informal organisations.

Electoral systems consist of sets of rules that govern all aspects of the voting process: when elections occur, who is allowed to vote, who can stand as a candidate, how ballots are marked and cast, how the ballots are counted (electoral method), limits on campaign spending, and other factors that can affect the outcome. Political electoral systems are defined by constitutions and electoral laws, are typically conducted by election commissions, and can use multiple types of elections for different offices.

Some electoral systems elect a single winner to a unique position, such as prime minister, president or governor, while others elect multiple winners, such as members of parliament or boards of directors. There are a large number of variations in electoral systems, but the most common systems are first-past-the-post voting, the two-round (runoff) system, proportional representation and ranked or preferential voting. Some electoral systems, such as mixed systems, attempt to combine the benefits of non-proportional and proportional systems.

the method used to calculate the number of elected positions in government that individuals and parties are awarded after elections. In other words, it is the way that votes are translated into seats in parliament or in other areas of government (such as the presidency).
A unique American institution created by the Constitution, providing for the selection of the president by electors chosen by the popular vote within each state. Throughout American History, the winner of the electoral college vote has usually been the candidate with the most popular votes. However in 2000, President George W. Bush was elected even though Al Gore won the popular vote, and President Trump was elected in 2016 even though Hillary Clinton won more votes nationwide.

Electoral College-representatives of each state
cast the final ballots that officially elect a president

Elector- Member of the Electoral College
chosen by methods determined in each state

538 electors

Problems with it:
-Unequal voting power depending on where you live
-Winner-take-all method of distributing electoral votes
-Unbound electors
-House of Representatives chooses if no one reaches a majority or the Electoral college is tied
-Presidency can be won without a majority of the popular vote

Arguements:
-The Founding Fathers enshrined the Electoral
College in the US Constitution because they
thought it was the best method to choose the
president.

-The Electoral College ensures that all parts of the
country are involved in selecting the President of
the United States.

-The Electoral College guarantees certainty to the
outcome of the presidential election.

-Like most of the Constitution the Electoral
College was the result of compromise
Not a perfect solution but satisfied all sides
Selection by Congress vs. Direct election-