Liver, gallbladder, pancreas
Terms in this set (34)
Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E are spread through?
fecal - oral
Hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and hepatitis D are spread through?
Hepatitis A and B are the only ones to have what?
Manifestations of hepatitis
pain, flu-like symptoms, jaundice, dark urine, low grade fever, anorexia, clay colored stools, pruritis, increased AST, ALT, ammonia, and bilirubin
How is hepatitis A acquired?
poor hygiene, hand to mouth contact, school children bringing it home to families
How is hepatitis B acquired?
many sex partners, tattooing, IV drug users, Hemodialysis, healthcare worker, exposure to blood/bodily fluids
Hepatitis D can survive without what?
Hepatitis B because Hep D is a weak virus and can't replicate without Hep B
People with Esophageal varices should avoid?
NSAIDs, alcohol, aspirin
Risk factors for esophageal varices
portal HTN, liver disease, alcohol abuse
Clinical Manifestations of esophageal varices
-deterioration in mental status
-S/S of shock (cool clammy skin, hypotension, tachycardia) may be present.
How to diagnose esophageal varices?
Medications used to treat esophageal varices?
Besides meds what other care is giving for esophageal varices?
-replace fluids and electrolytes
-blood transfusion for bleeding patient
-insert urinary cath to monitor urine output
What is hepatic encephalopathy?
The loss of brain function when a damaged liver doesn't remove toxins from the blood. Life threatening liver failure complication.
Risk factors for hepatic encephalopathy
increase ammonia levels, dehydration meds, excessive diuresis
Clinical Manifestations of hepatic encephalopathy
-mental status changes
-a sweet, slightly fecal odor to breath
-disturbances in sleep patterns
Medications used to treat hepatic encephalopathy?
Care for hepatic encephalopathy other than medications?
-Assess neuro status frequently
-Maintain safe environment
-Encourage deep breath to prevent respiratory complications
-Short term reduction of foods high in protein to reduce ammonia production
If an esophageal varices ruptures or hemorrhages it is considered what?
A medical emergency
Chronic disease of the liver characterized by replacement of normal tissue with scar tissue, that disrupts the structure and function of the liver
Types of Cirrhosis
Risk factors for cirrhosis
-right sided heart failure
-bile duct problems
-Hep B and C
-chronic liver problems
Clinical Manifestations of cirrhosis
How do we care for cirrhosis?
-remove fluid from abdomen
-monitor meds patient is on
-give B complex vitamins
-assess for encephalopathy and esophageal varices
patients with cirrhosis should avoid?
how to diagnose cirrhosis?
-decreased protein and albumin
-assess for ascites
-AST, ALT, GGT
Medication for cirrhosis
-potassium sparing diuretics
Pancreatitis Clinical Manifestations
-abdominal and back pain
-low grade fever
-worse when eating
-absent bowel sounds
-possible crackles in the lungs
-possible hypovolemic shock
What can cause pancreatitis?
-biliary tract disease
-complications to ERCP
-viruses and trauma
How to care for a patient with pancreatitis?
-possible NG tube
-assess for shock
How to diagnose pancreatitis?
-elevated lipase and amylase levels
inflammation of the gallbladder
Medication used for pancreatitis?