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Arts and Humanities
COM 115 final exam
Terms in this set (59)
What are ethics, and what are some potential sources of ethics today?
Ethics are rules used to determine right from wrong
Rules may be grounded in religious principles, democratic values, codes of conduct
Is all speech protected by the 1st amendment?
Dangerous speech is not protected
"FIRE!" in a movie theatre
Who ultimately decides issues of free speech? What role do values play in ethics?
Values are socially shared ideas about what is good, right, and desirable
These are harder to change
What guidelines does the book have for speaking ethically?
Protect your credibility
engage in dialogue not monologue
4 principles of ethical speech
Protect the common good
What is ethos and why is it important?
"Ethical appeal" mode of persuasion meaning to convince an audience of the authors credibility or character
Protects your credibility
ethical appeal found in actual speech
Supporting material, argument flow, source citation
speakers image in the mind of the audience
Knowledgeable, trustworthy, positive and honest intent
honest concern for welfare of listeners
the audience is viewed as an object to be manipulated.
Speaker displays qualities such as: deception, superiority, domination
What principles of ethical speech does the textbook offer?
Search - your knowledge of speech topic
Justice - present ideas open and fairly
Public Motivation -
Respect for dissent - accept opinions different from own
Ethical pitfalls to avoid mentioned in text?
Ambiguity, rumors, innuendos, herd mentality, hidden agendas, excessive and inappropriate emotional appeals
covered lies, hints or sly remarks that something is what it isn't
"Mark has been spending a lot of time with Alyssa at night, if ya know what I mean ;)"
error in reasoning
Name calling - calling abortion supporters "baby killers"
Glittering generalities - vague word or phrase used to evoke positive feelings rather than convey information
"Make America great again"
"The winning team"
Testimonials - testifying to benefits received
Plain folks - create false identification with audience
"I'm just like you"
Bandwagoning - "everyone else is doing it"
What does each letter of the acronym PARTS stand for?
Point of view - objective, no bias
Authority - consider your source
Reliability - does your source check out?
Timeliness - more current the source the better
Scope - your extent of sources
If given information about a source, could you analyze it using PARTS?
consuming information wisely and appropriately
using others work and/or words without adequate acknowledgement
failure to give credit to specific part of speech either quote or paraphrasing
What kinds of questions can speakers ask themselves in order to avoid unethical research and delivery practices?
Have I used false or misleading information?
Have I oversimplified complex situations.
What does it mean to be an ethical listener?
Properly listen to material being presented
Unbiased judgement on material
What are the listeners responsibilities and what is meant by ethical listening, attitudes, and behaviors?
Be aware of distractions
Think critically about the message
What is the role of research in speech?
Provides foundation for speech
Enhances knowledge on topic by giving you tools to expand your thesis statement
What does the "supporting materials" mean?
Supporting materials are the information used to make your case in a speech
What is a research strategy important?
It helps you create a speech based on the constraints placed on your speech as well as things such as the types/ number of sources, the audience, the location, and so on.
What steps are involved in a research strategy?
Analyze the audience
Access your knowledge and skill
search print/online sources
Interview if appropriate
Why is audience analysis important in the research strategy?
Understanding your audience's needs, wants, and interest helps you develop questions that can be answered through your research
Answering specific questions related to your audience helps determine the depth and breadth of information needed to answer your more general questions
You increase the likelihood of establishing an effective speaker audience connection
first hand accounts
Statistics, speeches, interviews, diaries, journals, and letters
provides an analysis or a restatement of a primary
Article reviews, commentaries, magazine, and newspaper articles
Susceptible to bias
What kind of specific library resources are available?
General encyclopedias - covers wide range of topics in broad manner
Specialized encyclopedias - focus on particular areas of knowledge in more detail
Differences between databases and other websites.
Databases - provide scholarly articles from a wide variety of sources that are reliable, full length articles, free of ads and available 24/7
Other websites - quality and credibility can be questionable
What criteria should be used to evaluate websites in general?
Authority - is it credible?
Accuracy - is it reliable, current and error free?
Objectivity - is the information fair and unbiased?
Coverage - does the material have depth and breadth?
Currency - is the information recent or updated?
Contact person well in advance
Prepare questions in advance
Develop questions in a logical order
Stay in agreed time frame
Why is supporting material important in a speech?
Supporting material gives substance to your assertions
Five functions of support
Appropriate for audience
are verifiable and irrefutable
is a point of view that may not be supported in fact
Purpose of facts
Clarifies main point
Defines new concepts
Indicates knowledge of topic
Guidelines for using facts in a speech
Carefully determine how many factors to use
Define terms when they are introduced
Make sure your meanings are clear
are a collection, analysis, interpretations, and presentation of information in numerical form
In what ways can statistics be misleading?
When using statistics in your speech it is important to understand what they mean
Guidelines for using statistics
Don't use too many
Use visual aid to express statistics
Why are examples helpful to use in a speech?
Examples enliven speeches in a way that no other form of supporting material can
short illustration that clarifies a general statement
longer and richer in detail
Builds image or creates long lasting impression on audience
examples that come from real life events such as a personal experience
What is a narrative, and how does it relate to examples?
Narrative is a story within a speech, it assumes great importance to the audience as they become involved with details
Guidelines for using examples
Use only amount of detail necessary
Use examples to explain new concepts
citing the words of others to strengthen your position by telling the audience that people with special knowledge/expertise to support your position.
How might testimony be used unethically?
Purposefully distorting testimony to suit the needs of your speech
What are the types of testimony?
Experience - most credible in some cases as it comes from someone experiencing or witnessing a situation
Can use self if you're an expert on a certain topic
Opinion - opinion of recognized authority
Short quotations - used to set tone of speech, provide humor, or make important points memorable
Can be paraphrased
Guidelines for using testimonies
Use recognizable or credible testimony and quotations
Choose unbiased experts
Identify the source
Develop techniques to signal the beginning and ending of each quotation
establishes common links between similar and not so similar concepts
Figurative - draws comparisons between things that are different
Life is like a box of chocolates
Literal - compare things that are similar
College football vs. NFL
Guidelines for using analogies
Use to build power of argument
Be certain it's clear
Do not use too many
Why is it important to cite the sources of information in your speech?
Gives proper credit to authors of information used
Allows others to duplicate your research and
How much of your research needs to be cited in your speech?
All research unless it's your own ideas or common knowledge
Correct and incorrect source citations
Functions of an introduction
Provide motive for audience to listen
Preview the message
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