72 terms

Chapter 10 Human Geo


Terms in this set (...)

Deliberate modification of the Earth's surface through cultivating plants and rearing animals for sustenance or economic gain.
Agribusiness, industrial agriculture
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
Agricultural Industrialization
The increased mechanization of the farming process to increase productivity and profits; farms are becoming larger and more geared towards the large-scale production of specific food product
Agricultural Landscape
Agricultural Revolution
A period in time in which peoples across the globe began to switch from Hunter-Gatherer societies to Farming and Domestication (raising animals). The Agricultural Revolution seems to have started 9,000 years ago, and led to a sharp increase in Human populations (better, more stable and available food).
Crop Hearths
Agriculture originated in multiple hearths around the world.

Southwest Asia--Barley and Wheat (also lentils and olives)

East Asia -- Rice (also Millet)

Sub-Saharan Africa--Sorghum (also maybe millet and rice)

Latin America--Beans, cotton, potato, and corn.
Animal Hearths
Domestication had several hearths

Southwest Asis--hearth for domestication of important animals such as cattle, goats, pigs, and sheep.

Central Asia--horse
Subsistence Agriculture
Found in Developing Countries

Production of food primarily by the farmer's family.

Generally don't sell to market
Commercial Agriculture
Found in Developed Countries

Production of food primarily for sale off the farm

(Intensive?? Extensive??)
Comparing Subsistence Agriculture vs Commercial Agriculture
Percentage of farmers in the labor force--In developing countries (subsistence farming), a higher percentage of people work in agriculture (44% vs 4% in developed countries which are commercial agriculture)

Use of Machinery--In developing countries (subsistence farming), work done by the farmers themselves and/or by animals. In developed countries (commercial agriculture), farmers rely on machinery, fertilizers, herbicides, etc.

Farm size--Farms are smaller in developing countries (subsistence agriculture) and bigger in developed countries (commercial agriculture).
Agricultural Location Model (Von Thunen)
a model designed by Von Thunen that depending on the cost of transportation and the value of the product different types of farming are conducted at different distances from a city.site or human factors were not considered in this model
Animal Domestication
When animals are tamed and used for food and profit.

The taming of animals through generations of breeding to live in close association with humans as a pet or work animal
Fish farming

Raising aquatic organisms for food in a controlled environment
Crop Rotation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Biorevolution, biotechnology
The genetic engineering of plants and animals with the potential to exceed the productivity of the Green Revolution

E.g., Genetically Modified Crops

Monsanto is a big company that does this.
Collective Farm
An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter.
the area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.

Can't be from too far away from the city because the milk would go bad during transportation (because milk is perishable--i.e., it can spoil)
debt-for-nature swap
Forgiveness of international debt in exchange for nature protection in developing countries
Double Cropping
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
Economic Activity or sector
Environmental modification

Soil Erosion

Extensive Subsistence Agriculture
Shifting Cultivation, Slash Burn, Milpa, Swidden
Extractive industry
businesses that take mineral resources from the earth.
Farm Crisis
The mass production of farm products that lowers the prices, which lowers the profits for farmers. This had led to the decrease in small farms.??????
First Agricultural Revolution
10,000 years ago achieved plant and animal domestication

This allowed human populations to rise
Globalized Agriculture
system of food production increasingly dependent upon an economy and set of regulatory practices that are global in scope and organization
Food Chain
Green Revolution
Agricultural revolution that increased production through improved seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation; helped to support rising Asian populations.

the introduction of pesticides and high-yield grains and better management during the 1960s and 1970s which greatly increased agricultural productivity
Hunting Gathering
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
Livestock Ranching
An extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West.
Market Gardening
Mediterranean agriculture
An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados, olives, and a host of nuts, fruits, and vegetables comprise profitable agricultural operations.
Nomadic Hearding
A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter.
Planned Economy/Command Economy
Economy that relies on a centralized government to control all or most factors of production and to make all or most production and allocation decisions
Plant Domestication
Plantation Agriculture
Production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives
Carl Sauer
Geographer from the University of California at Bed defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental un graphical analysis. This landscape results from interaction betwee and the physical environment. Sauer argued that virtually no land escaped alteration by human activities.
Second Agricultural Revolution
Happened at the same time as (and benefitted) the Industrial Revolution. It included improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce.
Third Agricultural Revolution
Currently in progress, the Third Agricultural Revolution has as its principal orientation the development of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)?????
GM Crops
Staple Grains
Survey Patterns
(long lots, metes and bounds, townships and range)
Sustainable yield (zero sum principle)
Tragedy of the commons
situation in which people acting individually and in their own interest use up commonly available but limited resources, creating disaster for the entire community
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
Truck Farming
Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning batering or the exchange of commodities.
Vegetative versus seed agriculture
reproduction of plants by direct cloning of existing plants


Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which result from sexual fertilization.
Did a map with 11 agriculture regions (5 LDC nad 6 MDC)
Agriculture In Developing Regions (Whittlesey)
Pastoral Nomadism (in dry lands of southwest asis, central asia and north africa)

Shifting Cultivation

Intensive Subsistance--wet rice dominant (primarily in East Asia and South Asia)

Intensive Subsistance--Non rice dominant (parts of east and south asia where rice cultivation is difficult)

Plantation--(primarily in tropics)
Agriculture in Developed Regions (Whittlesey)
Mixed crop and livestock (US miswest, central Europe)

Dairying (near population clusters

Grain (north central US, Eastern Europe)

Ranching (drylands of North America, Southeastern Latin America, Central Asia, sub-Saharian africa

Mediterranean--dry lands near sea, Western US, Southern Africa, the Med

Commercial Gardening (southeastern US, Southeastern Australia)
Primary Sectors
Farming, Mining, Domesticating Animals, Fishing, Lumbering.
Pastoral Nomadism

Shifting Cultivation

Intensive Subsistence (2x)

Plantation Agriculture
(PN) A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.

(SC) A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period. ALSO CALLED Slash & Burn

(IS) A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land. Broken into two categories (Wet Rice & Non-Wet Rice)

(P) Agriculture performed on a large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country (Practiced in Developing Countries, even though it's for a cash crop)
Mixed Crop and Livestock




Commercial Gardening
(MCL) Both animal and crops are farmed in the same area, wIth most crops feeding animals rather than people; most common form of commercial agriculture; helps even workload throughout the year. Commercial Agriculture)

(D) Agriculture involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter. (Commercial)

(G) Grain grown as a crop sold for human consumption. Most common commercial agriculture (and store and ship grain) Note wheat is part of international trade.

(R) A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area. (Commercial)

(M) Agricultural practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados, and nuts grown for commercial agriculture.

(CG) Truck Farming (truck = barter). Also some fruit farming. In South East USA
Expensive farm equipment used in commercial farming: Reaps (cuts); Threshes (separates seeds from stalks); and cleans grain while driving over field.
A flooded field for growing rice (aka Rice paddy--but paddy is wrong term for this)
A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Sustainable Agriculture
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil- restoring crops with cash crops and reducing in-puts of fertilizer and pesticides.
Sedentary Agriculture
Farming system in which the farmer remains settled in one place