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40 terms

micro #11 vocab

micro #11 vocab
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sterilization
the destruction of all microbial life
usually heat (moist)
usually inanimate objects
sometimes use sterilants
disinfection
destroys most microbial life, reduces contamination on inanimate surfaces
use of physical or chemical process
doesn't destroy endospores
removes toxins
antisepsis
destroys nmost microbial life, reducing contamination on living surface
decontamination
the mechanical removal of most microbes from an animate or inanimate surface
primary target of microbial control
microorganisms in environment capable of causing infection or spoilage
sepsis
the growth of microorganisms in the blood & other tissues
asepsis
any practice that prevents the entry of infectious agents to sterile tissues
bactericide
chemical that destroys bacteria (not endospores)
fungicide
chemical that can kill fungal spores, hypae & yeasts
virucide
chemical that inactivates (not kill because not technically alive)virsues
sporicide
can destroy bacterial endospores
germicide and microbicide
chemical agents that kill microorganisms
bacteristatic
prevent the growth of bacteria
fungistatic
inhibit fungal growth
decontanimation: sanitation
any cleasing technique that mechanically removes MO to reduce contamination to safe levles
decontamination: sanitizer
compound such as soap or cleasner
decontamination: sanitary
may not be free from microbes but safe for normal use
decontamination: degermation
reduces the numbers of microbes on the human skin
microbial death
1. various cell structures become dysfunctional & the entire cell sustains irreversible damage
2. no longer functions under ideal environmental conditions
thermal death time
the shortest length of time required to kill all test microbes at a specified temperature
thermal death point
the lowest temperature required to kill all microbes in a sample in 10 minutes
moist heat methods
1. steam under pressure (autoclave)
2.pasteurication = heat is applied to liquids. doesn't kill endospores or thermoduric microbes
3. boiling water - for disinfection not sterilization
dry heat methods
1. incineration
2. dry oven - usually electric oven. used for heat resistant items that do not sterilze well with moist heat
desiccation
dehydrate/desiccate vegatative cell when directly exposed to normal room air
lycophilization
a combo of freezing & drying used to preserve MO and other cells in a viable state for many years
radiation
energy emitted from atomic activities and dispersed at high velocity thru matter or space
ex. gamma rays, x-rays, UV radiation
ionizing radiation
is the radiation ejects orbital electrons from an atom causing ions to form. can go thru barrier
nonionizing radiation
exictes atoms by raising them to a higher energy state but does not ionize them
tinctures
solutions dissolved in pure alcohol or water-alcohol mixtures
phenol coefficient
compares a chemical's antimicrobial properties to those of phenol - make sure it doesn't cause harm
Phenol: high concentrations
cellular poisons -toxins
Phenol: lower concentrations
inactive certain critical enzymes systems - work at protein level
oligodynamic action
having antimicrobial effects in exceedingly small amounts
Prions
#1 most resistant.
made out of proteins. denature & then go right back to the shape. renaturing ability. influence other proteins
endospores of bacteria
#2
two membrane - peptidoglycan, many protein coats & possible exosporium
mycobacteria
#3
waxy mycolic acid
gram-negative bacteria
#4
outer membrane & porins
viruses without envelopes
#5
capsid (made out of protein) harder to break apart then cell membrane
gram positive bacteria
#6
outer membrane is peptidoglycan which is easy remove
viruses with lipid envelope
#7
envelope easy to break and then can into cell