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the destruction of all microbial life
usually heat (moist)
usually inanimate objects
sometimes use sterilants
destroys most microbial life, reduces contamination on inanimate surfaces
use of physical or chemical process
doesn't destroy endospores
primary target of microbial control
microorganisms in environment capable of causing infection or spoilage
any cleasing technique that mechanically removes MO to reduce contamination to safe levles
1. various cell structures become dysfunctional & the entire cell sustains irreversible damage
2. no longer functions under ideal environmental conditions
thermal death time
the shortest length of time required to kill all test microbes at a specified temperature
moist heat methods
1. steam under pressure (autoclave)
2.pasteurication = heat is applied to liquids. doesn't kill endospores or thermoduric microbes
3. boiling water - for disinfection not sterilization
dry heat methods
2. dry oven - usually electric oven. used for heat resistant items that do not sterilze well with moist heat
a combo of freezing & drying used to preserve MO and other cells in a viable state for many years
energy emitted from atomic activities and dispersed at high velocity thru matter or space
ex. gamma rays, x-rays, UV radiation
is the radiation ejects orbital electrons from an atom causing ions to form. can go thru barrier
exictes atoms by raising them to a higher energy state but does not ionize them
compares a chemical's antimicrobial properties to those of phenol - make sure it doesn't cause harm
#1 most resistant.
made out of proteins. denature & then go right back to the shape. renaturing ability. influence other proteins
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