38 terms

Chapter 15

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Terms in this set (...)

psychotherapy
the generic name given to formal psychological treatment
biological therapies
treatment of psychological disorders based on medical approaches to disease (what is wrong with the body) and to illness (what a person feels as a result)
insight
(1) the sudden realization of a solution to a problem. (2) the goal of psychoanalysis; a client's awareness of his own unconscious psychological processes and how these processes affect daily functioning
psychodynamic therapy
a form of therapy based on Freudian theory; it aims to help clients examine needs, defenses, and motives as a way of understanding distress
behavior therapy
treatment based on the premise that behavior is learned and therefore can be unlearned through the use of classical and operant conditioning
exposure
a behavioral therapy technique that involves repeated exposure to an anxiety-producing stimulus or situation
cognitive therapy
treatment based on the idea that distorted thoughts produce maladaptive behaviors and emotions; treatment strategies attempt to modify these thought patterns
cognitive restructuring
a therapy that strives to help clients recognize maladaptive thought patterns and replace them with ways of viewing the world that are more in tune with reality
cognitive-behavioral therapy
a therapy that incorporates techniques from cognitive therapy and behavior therapy to correct faulty thinking and change maladaptive behaviors
client-centered therapy
an empathic approach to therapy; it encourages people to fulfill their individual potentials for personal growth through greater self-understanding
expressed emotion
a pattern of negative actions by a client's family members; the pattern includes critical comments, hostility directed toward the person by family members, and emotional overinvolvement
psychotropic medications
drugs that affect mental processes
anti-anxiety drugs
a class of psychotropic medications used for the treatment of anxiety
antidepressants
a class of psychotropic medications used for the treatment of depression
antipsychotics
a class of psychotropic medications used for the treatment of schizophrenia and other disorders that involve psychosis
electroconvulsive therapy
a procedure that involves administering a strong electrical current to the person's brain to produce a seizure; it is effective for some cases of severe depression
placebo effect
an improvement in physical or mental health following treatment with a placebo- that is, with a drug or treatment that has no active component on the disorder being treated
applied behavioral analysis
an intensive treatment for autism, based on operant conditioning
Brendon believes that he is worthless, that other people do not like him, and that he will never have satisfying interpersonal relationships. To counteract this belief, Brendon's therapist says to him, "Brendon, I like and appreciate you. I enjoy interacting with you. What do you think of that?" Brendon says, "Well, if you like me, I guess it makes me think I am not such a bad person after all." In discussing these issues with his therapist, Brendon starts to think differently about himself. The therapist is using ________ with Brendon.
cognitive restructuring
In behavior therapy, an important aspect of treatment is ________, and this is called ________. reinforcing desired behaviors;
behavior modification
Antipsychotic drugs:
reduce the occurrence of delusions and hallucinations.
The fact that prehistoric people used to ________ means that ________.
engage in trepanning; people have always attempted to treat mental disorders
________ was originally developed to treat the medical condition ________, but was found to be effective in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression, as well. Deep brain stimulation;
Deep brain stimulation; Parkinson's disease
Which therapy is a legacy of the work of Ivan Pavlov?
exposure therapy
Jake takes haloperidol to ease his hallucinations and delusional thinking. Haloperidol is considered:
an antipsychotic medication.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors work by:
allowing serotonin to remain in the synapse.
This type of provider has earned a medical degree and can prescribe medication.
psychiatrist
This type of provider deals primarily with adjustment problems that do not involve mental illness.
counseling psychologist
Two mental health providers are choosing treatment approaches for two different patients. Patient A has schizophrenia, believed to be caused by brain dysfunction, and is being seen by Dr. Brahma, a psychiatrist. Patient B has a mild eating disorder, believed to be caused in part by inaccurate beliefs, and is being seen by Dr. Johnson, a clinical psychologist. Patient A will likely receive ________ treatment, and Patient B will likely receive ________ treatment, each being one of the major treatment approaches available to mental health professionals.
biological treatment; psychotherapy
Which of the following phenomena do contemporary psychodynamic therapists NOT explore with their clients?
cognitive distortions
In contrast to insight therapies, behavioral therapy:
sees maladaptive behavior as the problem to be treated.
In some cultures, it is more acceptable to say a person is "not feeling well" than to say the person "is feeling depressed." According to the discussion in your textbook, you would be correct if you assumed that cultures that have ________ probably have ________.
fewer words for psychological disorders; some cultural stigma attached to those disorders
Arianna has anxiety symptoms and has been prescribed an anti-anxiety medication. She will probably be prescribed ________, will experience an increase in ________ neurotransmitter activity, and may experience________.
Xanax; GABA; drowsiness
This treatment delivers a strong electrical current to the brain with the goal of reducing the symptoms of depression.
electroconvulsive therapy
Prozac and cognitive-behavioral therapy have both been found to be effective in treating social phobias. Why should cognitive-behavioral therapy be preferred to Prozac?
Prozac has some disagreeable side effects, such as sexual dysfunction.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is best treated through the use of:
exposure and response prevention.
Giving depressed patients a placebo rather than an actual drug:
alleviates depressive symptoms in roughly one-third of patients.
If your physician prescribes a drug to treat your depression, what is the likelihood you will experience relief from your symptoms?
about 65 percent