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Culture, way of life

- Shaped by history and experience

Behavior, knowledge, artifacts (material)

- part of cultures

Cultural Universals

- values or modes of behavior shared by all human cultures


- communication
- the primary vehicle of meaning and communication in a society, language is a system of symbols that represent objects and abstract thoughts

Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis

-A hypothesis, based on the theories of Sapir and Whorf, that perceptions are relative to language

-argues that language influences our perceptions of the world


- The study of the ways in which nonlinguistic phenomena can generate meaning

- nonverbal cultural meanings

- EX: Traffic Lights


- any vehicle of meaning and communicaiton

- any set of elements used to communicate


-collective ideals and beliefs

-EX: American values : respect everyone, freedom of expression, personal responsibility, human rights.


- Values and Norms distinct from those of the majority, held by a group within a wider society

Cultural Turn

-Describes sociology's recent emphasis on the importance of understanding the role of culture in daily life


- An approach that attempts to explain the behavior of both animals and human beings in terms of biological principles.


- process in which different cultures are absorbed into a mainstream culture

- the acceptance of a minority group by a majority population, in which the new group takes on the values and norms of the dominant culture


- ethnic groups exist separately and share equally in economic and political life


- the process of increased interconnectedness among countries most notably in the areas of economics, politics, and culture

- Cultural Connections

-EX: Improve technologies/Electronic Communications, International Organizations(United Nations), Global Citizens (Managers of Large Corporations), Unified Global Economy, Television/Radio

Types of Norms

NORMS : principles/rules people are suppose to observe
Two Types of Norms
____________________ : manners, étiquette

_____________________: serious rules of conduct; can result in punishment if not obeyed/followed


- the judging of other cultures in terms of the standards of one's own

Cultural Relativism

- the practice of judging a society by its own standards

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