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17 terms

SOCIOLOGY- Chapter 3: Culture

STUDY
PLAY
Culture, way of life
- Shaped by history and experience
Behavior, knowledge, artifacts (material)
- part of cultures
Cultural Universals
- values or modes of behavior shared by all human cultures
Language
- communication
- the primary vehicle of meaning and communication in a society, language is a system of symbols that represent objects and abstract thoughts
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
-A hypothesis, based on the theories of Sapir and Whorf, that perceptions are relative to language

-argues that language influences our perceptions of the world
Semiotics
- The study of the ways in which nonlinguistic phenomena can generate meaning

- nonverbal cultural meanings

- EX: Traffic Lights
Signifier
- any vehicle of meaning and communicaiton

- any set of elements used to communicate
Values
-collective ideals and beliefs

-EX: American values : respect everyone, freedom of expression, personal responsibility, human rights.
Subculture
- Values and Norms distinct from those of the majority, held by a group within a wider society
Cultural Turn
-Describes sociology's recent emphasis on the importance of understanding the role of culture in daily life
Sociobiology
- An approach that attempts to explain the behavior of both animals and human beings in terms of biological principles.
Assimilation
- process in which different cultures are absorbed into a mainstream culture

- the acceptance of a minority group by a majority population, in which the new group takes on the values and norms of the dominant culture
Multiculturalism
- ethnic groups exist separately and share equally in economic and political life
globalization
- the process of increased interconnectedness among countries most notably in the areas of economics, politics, and culture

- Cultural Connections

-EX: Improve technologies/Electronic Communications, International Organizations(United Nations), Global Citizens (Managers of Large Corporations), Unified Global Economy, Television/Radio
Types of Norms
Folkways
Mores
NORMS : principles/rules people are suppose to observe
Two Types of Norms
____________________ : manners, étiquette

_____________________: serious rules of conduct; can result in punishment if not obeyed/followed
Ethnocentrism
- the judging of other cultures in terms of the standards of one's own
Cultural Relativism
- the practice of judging a society by its own standards