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the resistance against which blood is ejected from the heart


Estimated from aortic pressure during ejection (LV) or pulmonary artery pressure during ejection (RV)

arterio-venous oxygen difference

O2 a- O2v


the volume of a vascular structure

Cardiac output

the amount of blood pumped from either ventricle in one minute (L/min)

cardiac index

Cardiac output divided by body weight (L/(minxKg))

central venous pressure

the pressure at the entrance to the right atrium


force of contraction


affecting heart rate


change in volume per unit change in pressure

diastolic filling time

time available for filling of ventricles during diastole


affecting conduction velocity

ejection fraction

stroke volume divided by end-diastolic volume; an index of contractility

end-diastolic volume

volume of blood in the ventricle just before it begins to contract

end-systolic volume

volume of blood remaing in ventricles at the end of systole


the difference in concentration of oxygen (dissolved plus bound to hgb) or of any solute between arterial and venous blood

frank-starling law

increasing end diastolic volume leads to increased force of ventricular contraction up to a peak value; increased preload leads to increased stroke volume

heart rate

the number of heart beats per minute


affecting the strength of contraction (contractility) of the heart


affecting the rate of relaxation of the heart

mean arterial pressure

average arterial blood pressure


the degree to which the myocardium is stretched just before contraction


estimated from CVP (RV) or PCWP (LV)

pressure-volume work

in the heart, work done to pump the stroke volume against arterial pressure

pulse pressure

difference between systolic and diastolic arterial pressures

vascular resistance

pressure gradient divided by flow; a calculated ratio (not directly measurable)

stroke volume

the volume of blood ejected by a ventricle in one heartbeat (EDV-ESV)

total peripheral resistance

the resistance to blood flow offered by the entire systemic vascular bed

total peripheral resistance


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