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Public Health test (copy)
Terms in this set (91)
Unless something unusual happens, like the outbreak of Cryptosporidium in
the Milwaukee water supply, people assume that they are basically safe.
Even when public health scientists are certain they know all about the causes
of a problem and what should be done about it, a political decision is generally necessary before
action can be taken to solve it.
As biomedical and environmental sciences have conquered many of the
diseases that killed people of previous generations, people in modern societies are dying of
diseases caused by their behavior and the social environment.
In the mid-19th century, what was the single largest cause of death?
The discovery of which of the following allowed medicine to gain the power to work miracles
of healing, leading to a period of rapidly growing influence?
What type of prevention seeks to minimize the severity of the illness or the damage due to an
injury-causing event once the event has occurred?
The mission of ___________ health is the fulfillment of society's interest in ensuring the
conditions in which people can be healthy.
As part of the ___________________ function, public health seeks to understand the medical
care system in an area of study generally referred to as health policy and management or health
administration, which also includes the administration and functioning of the public health
Concern about runaway costs, lack of access, and questionable quality of care has led to an
increasing interest in studying the medical care system and its effectiveness, efficiency, and
equity, leading to a science called health ________________ research.
. __________collects data that serves as diagnostic tools to inform experts on how healthy or
sick a society is and where its weaknesses are.
Public Health Assessment
According to Beauchamp, market ____________________ emphasizes individual
responsibility, minimal obligation to the common good, and the fundamental freedom to all
individuals to be left alone.
The UCS report put pressure on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to promote
abstinence-only programs for preventing ____________ pregnancy.
And example of __________ is children and young people can be restricted in their behavior
on the basis that they are not yet mature enough to make considered judgments as to their own
The _____________ omitted an entire climate change section from a major report rather
than compromise its credibility by misrepresenting the scientific consensus.
In times of economic difficulty, people are often willing to pay short-term costs
in order to obtain a benefit in the long term.
While the government cannot guarantee health and safety for each individual,
its role is to provide for maximum health and safety for the community as a whole.
Public health measures such as sex education in schools and the provision of
contraceptive services are widely accepted by members of certain religious groups who believe
they discourage immoral behavior.
Public health often arouses controversy on moral grounds, most often when it confronts what
type of issues?
Sexual and reproductive issues
In 2003, what publication reported that the National Cancer Institute's website contained
information suggesting that having an abortion increased a woman's risk of breast cancer?
New York Times
The Bush administration especially sought to suppress information and to discredit scientific
evidence regarding which of the following issues?
The Constitution, in the _____________________, includes among the fundamental
purposes of government, "to promote the general welfare."
Congress removed the financial penalty for lack of motorcycle helmet laws in _________.
. As recently as the late 19th century, milk was commonly watered down, then doctored with
__________________ to make it look normal.
plaster of Paris
____________ discusses new infectious diseases that occur naturally as well as potential
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)
Which of the following is the nation's leading spokesperson on matters of public health?
surgeon general of the US
The first published report that heralded the onset of the AIDS epidemic appeared in what
publication on June 4, 1981?
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
What agency has often been attacked by Congress and often had its policies watered down
by the George W. Bush administration?
Individual states have total flexibility in how to administer the Medicaid
False; has to meet federal requirements first
Regulation of the food and drug industries has been difficult and controversial
since Massachusetts passed the first American pure-food law in 1784.
Despite the lack of explicit constitutional authority, the federal government
has established a significant presence in public health.
Epidemiology is used to perform what function of public health?
Cryptosporidiosis was added to the national list of notifiable diseases in 1995 after a
widespread outbreak in which American city?
The eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome outbreak resembled an illness with similar symptoms that
affected some 20,000 people in Spain as a result of what household item being contaminated?
The study on the cholera outbreak that struck London in 1848 was conducted by British
physician _____________________, who is known as the father of modern epidemiology.
A county may normally record only a few cases of hepatitis each year; this represents the
______________, or the background level, in a population
The cholera outbreak occurred in _________ and lasted from 1853 and 1854
Broad Street (London)
The first major epidemiologic study of a chronic disease was the _____________.
Framingham Heart Disease Study
With some diseases, even a single case amounts to an epidemic
Except for the clear link between smoking and lung cancer, most chronic
diseases cannot be attributed to a single cause.
The Framingham Study and the two lung cancer studies are examples of
retrospective cohort studies that followed large numbers of people over extended periods of
In defining a disease to be studied, epidemiologists use the term disease broadly, but
________________ is a more accurate but cumbersome description of what is to be studied.
. A group that is exposed to the intervention is called the _________ group.
. __________ studies are the most convincing type of clinical trials.
example: randomized clinical trial
Information on the distribution of disease gives clues about the ____________________ of
When calculating the rate of a disease, which of the following is generally the denominator of
Population at risk
Which of the following is calculated by dividing the ratio of exposed subjects to nonexposed
subjects in the case group by the ratio of exposed subjects to nonexposed subjects in the
Which of the following is comprised of the answers to the who, when, and where questions?
In a therapeutic clinical trial, both the experimental group and the control
group are composed of patients who have the disease for which a therapy is being tested.
Disease frequency is usually expressed as prevalence rate
Cohort studies start out by measuring exposure and watching for the
development of disease.
___________ is a systematic error that may be introduced into a study in a number of ways
The Women's Health Initiative was a _________________________, the gold standard for
epidemiologic studies, and thus was much less likely to be subject to bias
Most epidemiologic studies are ______________________ and have little potential for harm
The U.S. Public Health Service and scientists from the Tuskegee Institute began similar
studies regarding syphilis in the year ___________
It is unrealistic to expect to succeed at a randomized controlled trial that
requires people to alter their behavior over a significant period of time
. Epidemiologic evidence is more convincing if there is a known biological explanation for an
association between an exposure and a disease
Strong epidemiologic evidence that cigarette smoking was a major case of heart disease
existed long before there was any biological evidence
Case-control studies that attempt to determine which of the following are especially subject to
cause of birth defects
Which of the following was used as a treatment for almost any illness by 18th-century
What surgical procedure was performed on more than half of all children in the 1930s
through the 1950s in the belief that the operation prevented rheumatic fever?
The numbers that describe the health of populations and the science that helps to interpret
those numbers is referred to as _____________________.
For most public health screening programs, ___________________ tests are desirable in
order to avoid missing any individual with a serious disease who could be helped by some
_____________ identifies events and exposures that may be harmful to humans and
estimates the probabilities of their occurrence as well as the extent of harm they may cause.
In _________ the states of Illinois and Louisiana mandated premarital screening for HIV.
Contradictory results from epidemiologic studies are uncommon.
The greater the confidence interval, the lower the likelihood of random error.
When the causes of disease are not well understood, as in breast cancer, little
is known about primary prevention.
Which of the following expresses the probability that the observed result could have occurred
by chance alone?
If an experiment was repeated 100 times and got the same answer 95 times but got a
different answer 5 times, what is the p-value of this experiment?
An unusual concentration of some kind of cancer, such as childhood leukemia, that alarms
everyone in the community is referred to as which of the following?
. _______________________ are a vital part of the public health's assessment function and
are used to identify special risk groups, to detect new health threats, to plan public health
programs and evaluate their successes, and to prepare government budgets
. In the past decades, many states have added a question regarding the mother's use of
_______________ to the birth certificate
The ________ is part of the Department of Commerce and collects data regarding the American population
The ____________ carries out surveillance for health hazards in the environment, including air pollutants and releases of toxic chemicals.
The information on death certificates is subject to a number of uncertainties, depending on how well the informant knew the deceased and the circumstances of the death.
The birth and death rates calculated for blacks tend to be higher than their true value would be due to incorrect population numbers.
Which of the following is an important public health issue, causing the NCHS to set up a special computer system that links vital records of infants born during a given year who died before their first birthday?
The Census Bureau decided against which of the following categories but allowed individuals to check more than one racial category for themselves?
In an attempt to make the collection of detailed information more efficient and more timely, the Census Bureau in 2005 launched which ongoing survey that collects the same information previously collected on the long form?
American Community Survey
By the 1960s, the threat of infectious diseases seemed to have been reduced to a minor nuisance.
An animal capable of transmitting the rabies virus in its saliva will already have brain involvement, exhibit symptoms, and be dead within a few days.
Vaccination not only keeps the individual from contracting a disease but also makes it harder for the pathogen to find susceptible hosts.
___________ developed techniques to classify bacteria by their shape and their propensity to be stained by various dyes.
The infectious agent that causes scarlet fever is the ____________ bacteria.
Group A hemolytic streptococcal
______________________ may develop as a result of previous exposure to the pathogen, or the host may naturally lack susceptibility for a variety of reasons.
For ____________________, contact tracing is used in addition to quarantine: people who have been exposed to the patient are given prophylactic doses of antibiotics.
Which of the following is the most common source of human infection in the world?
Which of the following are living, single-celled organisms that can grow and reproduce outside the body if given the appropriate nutrients?
What disease decimated the Native American populations because they had no immunity to it?
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has taken a lead in coordinating and encouraging the use of data in public health assessment.
Life cycle of Malaria
2. Human liver stage
3. Human blood cycle stage (merozoites)
4. gametocytes (sexual stage)
5. mosquito stages (gametes, ookinete, oocyst)
6. late mosquito stage
True or False: Singapore is a leader in healthcare innovation due to their reliance on technology rather than human resources.
Proportion of truly diseased persons as identified by the screening test; the measure of the probability of a correct diagnosis or the probability that any given case will be identified by the test. (Synonym: true-positive rate).
A well defined group with characteristics related to variable of interest and traced over time (comparing disease in two groups) is what type of Analytic research?
What are the 2 main types of bias?
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