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APUSH Chapter 14

This set covers the main ideas in APUSH Chapter 14- Forging the National Economy (1790-1860).
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Samuel Slater
A British mechanic(AKA "Father of the Factory System in America") that invented the first American machine for spinning cotton
Cyrus McCormick
inventor of the mechanical reaper
Eli Whitney
inventor of the cotton gin and interchangeable parts in 1793
Carl Schurz
a German liberal who was a foe of slavery and public corruption and contributed to the elevation of the American political life
Robert Fulton
installed a steam engine and created the first steamboat, contributing to the transportation revolution
Samuel F.B. Morse
invented the telegraph
DeWitt Clinton
the leader of government officials who came up with the plan to link New York City to the Great Lakes region(Erie Canal, aka "The Ditch"). It helped connect areas to the business world
Catharine Beecher
the unmarried daughter of a famous preacher and sister of Harriet Beecher Stowe; she urged women to enter into the teaching profession
George Catlin
painter and student of the Native American life who helped advocate for the preservation of nature and proposed the idea of National Parks. The first being Yellowstone in 1872
Industrial Revolution
In America, inventors began to produce helpful systems and machinges that contributed to the growth of America
Limited Liability
Refers to the fact that a business with public tosck can fail without any one person losing all of their money
Transportation Revolution
The beginning of better transportation ways in America including the steamboat, train, and better roads and canals
Nativism
the nosier American "nativists" who ralled for political action and in 1849 formed the Order of the Star Spangled Banner
Cult of Domesticity
a widespread culture creed that glorified the traditional functions of the woman homemaker in 1850. Married women commanded immense moral power, and they increasingly made decisions that altered the family.
Ecological Imperialism
the aggressive use of the Western natural boundary when hunters and traders almost made the beaver extinct
Factory System
invented by Samuel Slater, a method of manufacturing first adopted in England at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the 1750s. It included the idea of the assembly line and that all parts needed for a product would be made all in one place.
Market Revolution
a drastic change in the manual labor system originating in south (but was soon moved to the north) and later spread to the entire world. Traditional commerce became outdated with the transportation and industrail revolution. As a result, the north started to have a more powerful economy that was starting to challenge the economies of some mid-sized European cities at the time.
Rendezvous System
the base of the fur-trapping empire. Each summer, traders ventured from St.Louis to the Rocky Mountains where they waited for Indians to show up with beaver pelts to swap for manufacturing goods from the East.
Homesteaders
people who were hoping to gain land in the west with the Homestead Act. The Act required 3 steps to receive a deed to land: file an application, improve the land, and file for a deed of the land.
Domestic Feminism
a political movement composed mainly of women, begun in the late 19th century in order to campaign against women's suffrage in the United States and United Kingdom
Scabs
people who went on strike against their workplace
Interchangeable parts
identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing invented by Eli Whitney to conribute to the assembly line
Rugged individualism
the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook who promote the exercise of one's goals and desires and so independence and self-reliance
Cotton gin
a machine invented by Eli Whitney that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers. It increased thr development of the south and expanded slavery because there was more time for cotton to be planted.
Boston Associates
a term created by historian Vera Shlakmen in Economic History of a Factory Town, A Study of Chicopee, Massachusetts (1935) to describe a loosely linked group of investors. That included Nathan Appleton, Patrick Tracy Jackson, Abbott Lawrence, and Amos Lawrence
"Clermont"
the ship that Robert Fulton installed the powerful steam engine
Clipper Ships
very fast sailing ships of the 19th century that had three or more masts and a square rig. They were generally narrow for their length, could carry limited bulk freight, small by later 19th century standards, and had a large total sail area
Ancient order of Hibernians
an Irish Catholic Fraternal Organization that required members to be Catholic and either Irish born or of Irish descent. Its purpose was to act as guards to protect Catholic Churches from anti-Catholic forces in the mid 19th century, and to assist Irish Catholic immigrants, especially those who faced discrimination or harsh coal mining working conditions.
"Molly Maguires"
were members of a secret Irish organization that have been proven responsible for coalfield crimes, and kidnapping in the U.S. rests largely upon allegations of one powerful industrialis
General Incorporation Law
allows corporations to be formed without a charter from the legislature. It also refers to a law enabling a certain type of corporation, such as a railroad, to exercise eminent domain and other special rights without a charter from the legislature.
Pony Express
was established in 1860 to carry mail speedily from St. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California in 10 days. Riders traded off about every 10 miles
Commonwealth v. Hunt
a case in which the U.S. Supreme Court overuled a Massachustetts Supreme Court decision and asseted that trade unions were legal and that they had the right to strike or take other steps of peacuful coercion to raise wages and ban non-union workers
Tammany Hall
was founded in 1786 and incorporated on May 12, 1789 as the Tammany Society. It was the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics and helping immigrants, most notably the Irish, rise up in American politics from the 1790s to the 1960s
Order of the Star-Spangled Banner
was an oath-bound secret society in NYC created by Charles Allen in 1849 to protest the rise of the Irish, Roman Catholic, and German immigration into the U.S. They were also known as the "Know-nothings" because they kept the society a secret.
Sewing machine
was invented by Elias Howe and perfected in 1846 by Isaac Singer. It became the foundation of the ready-made clothing industry
Know-nothing party
refers to the secret society of the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner