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PR Final Exam
Terms in this set (148)
What is the starting point for any PR assignment or problem-solving process?
Research must be complemented by what?
analysis and judgement
What is essential in helping realize management's goals?
What are outputs?
- outputs answer the question: Did we get the coverage we wanted?
- generally short term and surface
What do outtakes determine?
outtakes answer the question: Did our target audience see and/or believe our message?
What are outcomes?
- outcomes answer the question: Did audience behavior or relationships change and did sales increase?
- most important barometer in assessing success or failure of a program
- more far-reaching and carry greater impact than outputs
What is research?
systematic collection and interpretation of information to increase understanding
What stages should research be applied at in order to evaluate a program's effectiveness?
initial and final stage
What are the standards for PR research?
- Establish clear Objectives and desired Outcomes tied to Business Goals
- Differentiate between measuring PR Outputs and Outcomes
- Measure Media Content as a first step in PR evaluation process
- A Combination of Techniques is needed to Evaluate PR effectiveness
- Do not compare PR effectiveness with Advertising effectiveness
- An organization with clearly defined: Key Messages, Target Audiences, and Desired channels of Communication is the most Trustworthy measurement of PR effectiveness
What must PR evaluation be linked to?
overall Business Goals, Strategies, and Tactics
What are the two kinds of primary/original research?
applied research and theoretical research
What are the two types of applied research?
strategic research and evaluative research
What is applied research?
solves specific practical problems
What is strategic research?
- used to determine Program Objectives, Develop Strategies, or Establish Benchmarks
- examines the tools and techniques of PR
What is evaluative research?
- sometimes called summative research
- conducted mainly to determine whether a PR program has accomplished its goals and objectives
What is theoretical research?
- more abstract and conceptual than applied research
- aids in understanding of a PR process
- provides a framework for persuasion
- helps in understanding why people do what they do
When is communication most persuasive?
when it comes from multiple sources of high credibility
Why are messages more acceptable when they are simple?
because they are:
- easier to Understand
- easier to Localize
- easier to make Personally Relevant
How can persuasiveness of a message be increased?
accompany it with a high level of personal involvement in the issue at hand
What is secondary research?
- AKA desk research
- relies on existing material
- allows you to examine and learn from others' primary research
What is Claritas?
- an online resource that supplies Marketing Analysis and Demographic Terms
- used for secondary research
What is the foundation of modern social science and what is PR founded on?
What are the 3 primary forms of PR research that dominate the field?
- Communications Audits
- Unobtrusive Measures
What are surveys?
- designed to reveal Attitudes and Opinions
- one of the most frequently used research methods in PR
- mostly now done online
What are the types of surveys?
Descriptive Surveys and Explanatory Surveys
What are Descriptive surveys?
they offer a snapshot of a current situation or condition at a certain point in time
What are Explanatory surveys?
- concerned with Cause and Effect
- offers explanations for Opinions and Attitudes
- designed to answer the question of "Why?"
What are the 4 elements of surveys?
- Analysis of results
must be representative of the total republic whose views are sought
What are the cross-sectional approaches used in obtaining a sample?
Random sampling and Nonrandom sampling
What is essential to Random Sampling?
- Equality: no element has any greater or lesser chance of being selected
- Independence: selecting any one element doesn't influence the selection of any other element
What is Simple Random Sampling?
- gives all members of the population an Equal Chance at being selected
- size of simple random sample depends on the Size of the Population
What is Systematic Random Sampling?
- uses random starting point in the sample list
- selects every "nth" person in the list
What is Stratified Random Sampling?
- used to survey Different Segments (Strata) of the population
- improves Estimation
What is Cluster Sampling?
breaks population down to Heterogeneous Subsets/Clusters and then selects the sample from the individual clusters or groups
What are the types of Nonrandom Sampling?
- Convenience samples
- Quota samples
- Volunteer samples
What are Convenience samples?
- AKA: Accidental, Chunk, or Opportunity samples
- Unstructured, Unsystematic, and designed to Elicit ideas and points of view
Journalists conducting interviews with people in the street is an example of what kind of sample?
What are Quota samples?
- permit a researcher to choose subjects based on certain Characteristics
- imposed in Proportion to each group's percentage of the population
What is gathering research on the attitudes of a certain number of women, men, blacks, or whites an example of?
What are Volunteer samples?
use willing participants who agree voluntarily to respond to concepts and hypotheses for research purposes
What should a researcher must do before conducting a questionnaire?
What should researchers consider when designing a questionnaire? (12)
- Keep it short
- Use structured rather than open-ended questions (A, B, C, D)
- Measure intensity of feelings (very satisfied, satisfied, dissatisfied, very dissatisfied..)
- Don't use fancy words
- Don't ask loaded questions
- Don't ask double-barreled questions
- Pretest the questionnaire on other people to get suggestions
- Attach a letter explaining importance and ensuring anonymity
- Hand stamp envelopes when mailing
- Follow up your first mailing
- Send out more questionnaires than you think necessary
- Enclose a reward
What are the advantages of online questionnaires?
- Potentially Interactive
- Linked to a website
- more conducive to Asking More Questions
What can conducting interviews do?
can provide a more Personal, firsthand Feel for Public Opinion
What are the ways to conduct face-to-face interviews?
conducting Focus Groups or Intercept Interviews
- used with increasing frequency in PR today
- 90-120 minute discussions between 8-10 individuals who have been selected based on predetermined characteristics
- researchers "intercept" respondents in public
- popular in consumer surveys
What are the downfalls to telephone interviews?
- suffer from a High Refusal Rate (people don't answer numbers they don't know or they hang up because of telemarketers)
- many people just don't want to be bothered
- interviewer drops off a questionnaire at a household usually after conducting a face-to-face interview
- Response Rate is considerably High because the interviewer has already established rapport
Internet interviews (email)
- Least Expensive approach
- often suffers from Low Response Rate
- people who return email questionnaires are usually those with a strong bias on the subject
What are Delphi Panels?
- Qualitative Research Tool that uses opinion leaders to help design a general PR survey
- repeated waves of questionnaires sent to the same select panel of experts
- Consensus-Building approach
- designed by Rand Corporation in 1950s
What must researchers do when analyzing the results of a survey?
consider problems of Validity, Reliability, and levels of Statistical Significance associated with margins of error before concrete recommendations are volunteered
What is a margin of error?
- Explains how far off the prediction may be
- Must always be determined
- Differences detected by the survey might not be enough to offset the margin of error
What are the downfalls of popular political polls?
- Cannot Predict Outcomes scientifically
- can only provide a Snapshot of Attitudes at a certain point in time (because attitudes change over time)
- pollsters cannot categorically predict the outcome of an election
The Literary Digest issue of 1936
Telephone polling predicted that Alf Landon would be the next president in the election. He lost by a landslide to Franklin Roosevelt. Incorrect results from the survey probably happened because most people who were wealthy enough to own phones at the time were Republicans.
- used to determine whether a Communications Group and the products it produces are Realizing Objectives
- used to determine how the Institution is perceived by its Core Constituents
- often reveal Disparities between Management and Target Audiences
What are Communication Audits typically used to do?
- Analyze standing of a Company with its Employees or Community Neighbors
- Assess Readership of routine Communication Vehicles
- Examine an Organization's Performance as a Corporate Citizen
How often should communications audits be conducted?
every Couple of Years to keep an organization's communication Fresh and Consistent with modern methods and techniques
What are Unobtrusive Measures?
- Fact-Finding, Content Analysis, and Readability Studies
- enable the study of a subject or object without involving the researcher as an intruder
- relatively Simple and Inexpensive to apply
What are Unobtrusive Measures essential for?
finding ways to improve an ongoing PR program
What are the 4 types of Unobtrusive Measures?
- simple Content Analysis
- Copy Testing
- Case Study research
most widely used method of unobtrusive methods of data collecting
Simple Content Analysis
purpose is to Describe a Message or set of messages
public targets are exposed to PR campaign messages (to be used in brochures, memos, online, etc.) before they are published
Case Study research
analyzes how other organizations handled similar challenges
determines what happened and why by measuring Results Against Established Objectives
What is Accountability?
- taking Responsibility for Achieving the Performance promised
- PR professionals are obligated to Assess what they've done to determine whether the Expense was worth it
Outcome evaluation measures whether targets ....
- Actually Received the messages directed to them
- Paid Attention to messages directed to them
- Understood messages directed to them
- Retained messages directed to them
- Acted On messages directed to them
What is the most important barometer in assessing success or failure of a program?
measuring PR outcomes
What are the most common tools used to measure PR outcomes?
- Awareness and Comprehension tools
- Recall and Retention measurements
- Attitude and Preference measurements
- Behavior measurements
Awareness and Comprehension measurements
determine whether or not targets Received, Paid Attention to, and Understood messages directed at them
What do Awareness and Comprehension measurements require?
- require Benchmarking: determining Preliminary Knowledge about a target's Understanding so that the Furthering of that knowledge can be Tracked
What is Recall and Retention measurement commonly used for and why?
- commonly used technique in Advertising
- sponsors want to know their commercials have Lasting Impact
What is Attitude and Preference measurement?
- measure of how the message moved an individual's attitudes, opinions, and preferences
- more important than how much someone retained a message
What are Behavior measurements?
- ultimate test of effectiveness
- determines whether or not audience Acted On the messages directed to them
What is Search Engine Optimization (SEO)?
- process of Improving Visibility of a website in a search engine's Algorithmic Search Results
- the higher ranked a site appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will get from that search engine's users
What are the most rudimentary measurement tools in research because they do not assess anything about the visitors' interest in the product or info conveyed?
- hits: number of times a website is Visited by an individual
- eyeballs: number of orbital lobes affixed to that hit
What common sense metrics can social media's Return On Investment (ROI) be measured through?
- Bigger Outreach
- Twitter Analytics
- Facebook Analytics
- YouTube and other video sites
- Mobile can be measured
What has Web 2.0 been called and why?
"the Great Equalizer"
- all individuals can have their say and organizations must constantly keep track of what is being said about them by Consumer-Generated media
What should an organization do in order to prepare for internet evaluation? (6)
- Establish Objectives
- Determine Criteria
- Determine Benchmarks
- Select the right Measurement Tool
- Compare Results to Objectives
- Draw Actionable Conclusions
What questions does Establishing Objectives answer?
(in terms of internet evaluation)
- Why are we on the web?
- What is our site Designed to do?
- What are we trying to Communicate?
What does converting publicity to "news" depend on?
True or False:
PR people are horrible writers
What does it take to be a PR writer?
Good knowledge of the basics
Explain how readers have advantages over listeners
- readers can scan material, go back and reread
- readers can verify facts from the writer
What is the disadvantage in writing for readers instead of writing for listeners?
you must grab their attention because because they can stop reading and move on
What is the disadvantage in writing for listeners instead of writing for readers?
listeners get only one chance to listen to and comprehend a message
What are the 4 basics of writing?
- the Idea must precede the Expression
- don't be afraid of the Draft
- Simplify, Clarify (the simpler, the better)
- writing must be Aimed at a Particular Audience
What is the Flesch Readability Formula?
Rudolf Flesch suggested that people who write the way they talk will be able to write better:
- helps communicators communicate better
- helps receivers receive more clearly
What are 7 suggestions Flesch gave to make writing more readable?
- use Contractions such as it's and doesn't
- leave out the word "That" whenever possible
- use Pronouns (I, we, they, you)
- when referring back to a noun, repeat the noun or use a pronoun
- use Brief, Clear sentences
- cover only One Item per paragraph
- use Language the reader Understands
Explain the Inverted Pyramid Simplicity concept
the first few paragraphs include the most important facts with the following paragraphs written having less and less importance
What is the lead in a newspaper story?
- Most Critical Element in a newspaper story
- usually answers the Who, What, Why, When, Where, and sometimes How
What was the first recorded news release?
First recorded news release was called "Statement from the Road" and was issued by Ivy Lee for client Pennsylvania Railroad and their crash that killed 50 people.
What is PR Newswire?
a paid wire service used by PR people that distributes hundreds of news releases (mostly all by email) every day to over 5000 Websites and Online Databases
How and why do PR professionals frequently use news releases?
PR professionals email releases in hopes of getting
journalists to write favorably about their organization
What are the 5 noteworthy reasons for news releases that Linda Morton gives?
- Impact: a major announcement that affects an organization, its community, or society
- Oddity: an unusual occurrence or milestone
- Conflict: controversy
- Known Principle: the greater the title of the individual making the announcement, the greater the chance of the release being used
- Proximity: how localized or timely the release is relative to the news of the day
- extra: Human Interest stories (those that touch on an emotional experience)
How often are most news releases published?
- most news releases never see the light of print
- early research indicates that less than 10% of news releases were published
What is a key challenge for PR writers?
to ensure their news releases reflects news
What should News Releases Include? (6)
- well-defined Reason for sending the release
- one Central Subject
- subject is Newsworthy in the context of the Organization, Industry, and Community
- include Facts About the product, service, or issue being discussed
- Provide the facts "Factually" without unnecessary info or jargon
- brief Description of the company at the end
What should News Releases do in order to be trustworthy?
must be Objective
7 News Release Essentials
- No "Puffery" (leave out hyperbole)
- Nourishing Quotes
- Company Description
- Spelling, Grammar, Punctuation
- Clarity, Conciseness, Commitment
What is a boilerplate?
- a succinct company description
- appropriate to conclude a news release
What 6 things should boilerplates Include?
- Market Position of the company
- Scope of Business Activity
- Geographic Coverage
- Company Personality
How do the vast majority of journalists today prefer to receive news releases?
What must internet News Releases Conform to? (7)
- One reporter per "To:" line
- Limit Subject Line headers
- Hammer home the Headline
- Limit Length
- Observe 5W format
- No Attachments
- Remember Readability
Why should you only have one reporter in the "To:" line of a News Release?
if you don't, it will reduce the chance of it being chosen to be written and published about because reporters don't like to be grouped together, they like to feel special
How long should Subject Line headers be when emailing a News Release?
How long should Headlines be in email News Releases?
10 words or less (written in boldface upper- and lowercase)
How long are average News Releases?
the average print release is 500 words
Why should you not add Attachments to email News Releases?
journalists wont go for them because of the risk of getting a virus and because they take time to download
What is readability and what can be done to news releases to increase their readability?
- readability means the Information is Arranged to be more Eye Friendly
- Short paragraphs
- Varied paragraph lengths
What is the most fundamental way to reach a journalist (after the news release)?
through a pitch letter
What is pitching?
- the act of a PR professional attempting to interest a journalist in covering what the organizational communicator is selling
- an art
What helps a pitch be successful? (6)
- Homework (research)
- Politeness and Honesty
True or False:
Most PR pitches are randomly distributed with no particular target in mind
What are the most common types of PR writing vehicles that are regularly pitched to journalists to stimulate coverage?
Roundup Stories and Case Histories
What are Roundup Stories?
stories that collect or "round up" Industry or Societal Trends
What are Case Histories?
- cite specific Solutions for Organizational Problems that hold more Generalizable Industry Application
What is helpful in writing for the ear? (6)
- Short words
- Short sentences
- 10-cent words
- Forget jargon
- Speak it aloud
True or False:
Writing for listening is more formal than writing for reading
True or False:
Short sentences are less impactful than longer ones
What is the most important spoken word vehicle?
What gives PR professionals the "most access"?
writing a speech for a CEO
What 5 characteristics
should speeches include?
- Designed to be Heard, not read
- Demands a Positive Response
- Clear-cut Objectives
- Concrete language
- Tailored to a Specific Audience
What sections must every speech include?
- Introduction: speaker tries to win immediate trust
- Thesis: most critical element of the speech, often overlooked
- Body: bulk of the speech that reinforces the thesis
- Conclusion: final chance the speaker has of encouraging the audience's support and action
What must the conclusion of a speech be?
What is the importance of editing?
- one error can sink a perfectly worthwhile release
- good editing will make Dull Passages better
- good editing will get rid of Passive Verbs
- editing should concentrate on Organizing
What does a controlled experiment do?
figures out what causes something to happen by isolating a variable/treatment
Explain the Solomon 4 Group Design
- seeing if a variable will produce a certain result
- take a random sample of the population and randomly assign people into 1 of 4 group
O = test/observation
X = message/variable group is exposed to
O1a = O2a = O2b = O4
What is Secondary Analysis?
taking data collected at one point in time for one reason and analyzing them at a different point in time for a different reason
Why is Secondary Analysis cheaper than Primary Analysis?
saves time and money because it's cheaper to buy or obtain the data than conducting your own research
What are the disadvantages of Secondary Research?
- the questions or tests done to collect the research might not be appropriate or specific enough for your case
- things change over time
What is Content Analysis?
- examining the content of something (usually media) in order to find out what people think
- people in PR check news to see if their organization has been mentioned or covered by the media
What are the characteristics of a focus group? (4)
- people discussing issues
- people usually don't know each other
- looks at the range and depth of feelings and emotions
- wont prove what will work, but tells us what wont work
What are the uses of focus groups? (6)
- Information for formal surveys
- Follow-up to surveys
- Test new Ideas or Programs
- Identify Decision-Making Process in organization
- Identify Needs
- Test Messages
What are focus groups mostly used for?
What are some considerations when conducting a focus group? (6)
- Number of groups
- Number of participants per group
- Securing participants
- Location for the groups
- Cooperation fees for participants
- Selecting a moderator
How many focus groups should be conducted?
- minimum of 2 or 3
- best to have 5 or 6
How many participants is best for a focus group?
What are the two types of samples (when you read data in polls)?
Non-Probability samples and Probability samples
What is a Non-Probability sample composed of?
- Available Subjects: taking whoever you can get
- Judgment: picking people for certain characteristics they have
- Quota: get a percentage of the population with certain demographics present in the sample
What is a Probability sample composed of?
- Equality in selection
- Independence in selection
What are the types of samples in terms of what samples do?
What is a Profile?
- One shot, One Description of the Population
- Summary of population stats to describe them at One Point in Time
What is a Trend?
- a Series of Profile samples
- tells us What is Changing
- Different People, asked the Same Questions over time
What is a Panel?
- tells us Who is Changing
- Same People, Same Questions over time
Explain what e-typical means in terms of a panel
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