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World History Chapter 7 Test

1. Under what ruler did India's first great dynasty come together?
Chandragupta Maurya
2. In what year did Chandragupta Maurya begin his empire?
321 BCE
What characterized Chandragupta Maurya's rule?
he seized all the land from the magadha to the indus and that his empire stretched more than 2,000 miles.
How did Chandragupta Maurya know what was going on in the various parts of his empire?
he split them up into 4 provinces and used secret police to root out people that were disagreeing with him; created a highly bureaucratic government
5. Elaborate on elements of empire in Chandragupta's Empire.
Created 4 provinces each ruled by a prince; he had a system of roads (the silk road) and used rivers for transport; he had common coinage a common language: hindi and a common religion: HInduism
6. Why did the empire change under Asoka?
he converted to Buddhism
7. How did life in India change after Asoka converted to Buddhism?
he gave people more free will and had religous toleration and he improved trade and communication by digging wells and building rest houses on roads of travel
8. What happened to the empire after Asoka died?
the empire fragmented: corrupt government, societal unrest, natural disaster, and the government collapsed
9. What part of India did the Mauryans never conquer?
southern india and sri lanka (the tamils)
10. What was unusual about Tamil people?
they had woman rulers
11. Both Mauryan and Gupta dynasty began where?
in the indo-gangentic plain
12. Why did they choose to begin in the Indo-Gangetic Plain?
their were rivers and fertile land ...
13. Having begun in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, the empires then spread south into what region?
the Deccan Plateua
14. What was the primary economic activity in the Indo-Gangetic Plain?
15. When did the Gupta Empire begin?
230 BCE
16. Which early Indian Empire is considered the great classical Indian Empire?
the Gupta Empire
17. What is the importance of trade?
expanded and ideas moved from, to, and through India and Improved knowledge of astronomy (especially stellar navigation - helped trade)
18. What is a stupa?
stone structures built over holy relics, used during meditation
19. What were the two main religions in Early India?
Buddhism and Hinduism
20. What beliefs did these religions have in common?
they both believed there was one divine force in the universe; nirvana
21. Is Hinduism monotheistic or polytheistic?
22. Name the three primary aspects of the deity? What function did each play?
Brahma- the creator, vishnu- the preserver and Shiva- the destroyer
23. What are some of the literary achievements during the Gupta Dynasty?
writing by Kalidasa and Tamil poets; development of Indian drama and dance
24. What was unusual about drama during Gupta Dynasty?
wandering groups of performers took theater all over india
25. What scientific advances occurred in the Gupta Dynasty
astronomy, mathematics, and medicine
26. What medical advances occurred in the Gupta Dynasty?
compiled medicine guides, surgery and plastic surgery, possibly even gave injections (invented the small pox vaccine)
27. What were some of the products that India traded?
spices, diamonds, sapphires, gold,pearls, and beautiful woods-including ebony, teak, and sandalwood as well as cotton
What were some mathematical and astronomical advances in India?
adapted western methods of keeping time; bagan to use a calendar based on the cycles of the sun; adopted a seven-day week and divided each day into hours; proved the arth was round; invented zero and the decimal system and calculated the value of pi to four decimal places
28. Combining land and sea, the Gupta were able to trade as far as __________?
Africa and Sumeria as well as Rome and eastern China
29. Trade with China was generally along routes called the ________.
the silk road
30. How did India maximize opportunities of Silk Road?
the made a great profit by acting as middle men
31. What were some of the dangers of the Silk Road?
stealing, getting sick, camels
32. What commercial developments emerged in India to help trade?
How did loans by Indian bankers reflect changing risks along these pathways?
as the economy changed they could change the interest rates depending on how risky the wanted to be.
34. Which dynasty united China?
the han dynasty
35. Who was the primary ruler of the Qin Dynasty? Be able to spell his name.
When did shihunagdi rule?
before 200 BCE
What philosophy did shihuangdi use to come to power?
centralized government and established a strong government by conquering the rival kings who ruled small states throughout CHina
38. What was the next dynasty after the Qin Dynasty?
the han dynasty
39. What are the dates of the Han?
200 BCe- 200 CE
40. Who was the first Han ruler?
Liu bang
41. How did Liu Bang structure the government?
he established a centralized government and the country was divided into provinces which were ruled by governors; lowered taxes and softened harsh punishments
42. How were the "elements of empire" reflected in China?
China was broken up into provinces and ruled by governors; the silk road was the main trade route from east to west; common- religion was Confucianism, coinage
43. Who carries out the will of the ruler on a day-to-day basis?
civil service?
44. How did the value system of the Han differ from the values under the Qin?
the Han was more peaceful and Qin was more violent
45. What were some of the things that Lu Bang did to change from the Qin Dynasty?
he softened the harsh punishments and lowered taxes; also had commanderies
46. Into what areas did Wudi expand China?
colonized the northeast and made his northwest borders safe; conquered mountain tribes in the south
47. Who were the first peoples against whom wudi struggled?
the xiong nu
48. Who could technically sit for the civil service exams? In reality who sat for civil service exams?
Technically open to anyone but in reality only wealthy could afford necessary years of study
How did the development of the civil service system reflect Confucian values?
the tested applicants on their knowledge of Confuciansim
50. What were some of the achievements of the Han?
paper was invented, bureaucracy expanded, collar harness, more efficient plow with two blades, improved iron tools, invented the wheel barrow, developed water mills to grind grain, water pump to raise water to the fields
51. What did they write on before paper?
either silk or strips of wood
53. Where did farmers stand in Confucian society? Why?
they were above the artisans and merchants because their production of food was vita to the existence of the empire
54. What were some of the sources of revenue in the Han dynasty?
55. What does one call the trade route that connected China with the west?
The silk road
56. What problems were faced by the later Han dynasty?
land was divided into smaller and smaller plots, minted new money, political intrigues, and social unrest; also a flood
57. What led to corrupt government in the Han?
the government got less and less money because more of the land was owned by the rich; political intrigues
58. What group of people contributed to all of the plotting in the palace?
59. Problems that led to the downfall of the Han?
economic imbalances, political intrigues, and social unrest; disintegrated into 3 rival kingdoms