AP Computer Science Principles Review
AP CS P Semester Review
Terms in this set (180)
A collection of networks or network of networks, hierarchical, redundant
In a network, the end nodes (server and client) provide the functionalities. The routers, etc. (intermediaries) only move the bits.
A thing made or adapted for a particular purpose, especially a piece of mechanical or electronic equipment
A group of connected devices connected by cable, wi-fi, or satellite
Internet Protocol (IP)
Set of rules governing format of data sent over the Internet.
Domain Name System (DNS)
The protocol for translating between domain names and IP addresses (converts web addresses into IP addresses)
A unique string of numbers separated by periods that identifies each computer using the Internet Protocol to communicate over a network. Hierarchial
New IP address system, will provide 2^128 (about an undecillion) addresses. 128 bits for each address
Old IP address system, 2^32 addresses (about 4 billion)
Hypertext Transfer Protocol. A conventional set of communication rules for controlling how Web browsers and servers pass information back and forth over the Internet.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, protocol for email transmission
Internet Engineering Task Force, group of volunteers, defines standard Internet operating protocols such as TCP/IP.
Arranged in an order. Examples: IPv4-Domain, sub-domain, host; DNS-root domain, domain, subdomain; the Internet is hierarcial
Duplication of critical components in case some part goes down. Example: the Internet has many paths between networks
Routers send packets (~1500 bytes) as they see fit.
The extent to which we can depend on something to work
Protocols (include TCP/IP)
A well known set of rules or procedures
shared boundary over which information is shared
standards made available to the general public, non-proprietary protocols or specifications
group data into packets for transmission
Basic communication protocol of the Internet
software for presenting Web content (Chrome, Internet Explorer, etc.)
Cryptographic protocols for communications security
The amount of data that can be transmitted in a fixed amount of time
How much time it takes for a packet to get from one point to another point
used to determine security strength of your data in the cloud for example
protecting networks, computers, etc. from attack
the use of computer technology to disrupt the activities of a state or organization, especially the deliberate attacking of information systems for strategic or military purposes.
criminal activities carried out by means of computers or the Internet.
Distributed Denial of Service, multiple systems flood the bandwidth causing it to run extremely slow or completely shut down
sending fraudulent emails in order to induce individuals to reveal information
malicious software program that replicates
detect, prevent, remove viruses
software that blocks unauthorized access
a method of storing and transmitting data in a particular form so that only those for whom it is intended can read and process it. Examples: Caesar's, Vigenere's, One Time pads
private key, uses a singular encryption key (Caesar's, Vigenere's, One Time pads)
Modern public key encryption, makes online secure transactions possible
Who you purchase digital certificates from
Verifies that a user sending a message is who he or she claims to be
Technology the adds to previously existing technology in order to improve it
messages distributed by electronic means from one computer user to one or more recipients via a network.
use of remote servers to store, manage, and process data
Data available to anyone
Global positioning system, a radio navigation system that allows land, sea, and airborne users to determine their exact location, velocity, and time 24 hours a day, in all weather conditions, anywhere in the world
networks of sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions
performs many of the functions of a computer, typically having a touchscreen interface, Internet access, and an operating system capable of running downloaded applications
Assistive, adaptive, rehabilitative devices for people with disabilites
Internet vs WWW
Internet is a collection of networks, WWW is a collection of HTML documents
commercial transactions conducted electronically on the Internet
involving the public in scientific research
A distributed approach to computing systems
a computer science technique in which a machine performs its function by outsourcing certain steps to humans, usually as microwork
obtaining information by enlisting the service of a large group of people
Transmission of data without needing a physical link
computers with the ability to learn
examining large databases in order to generate new information
advanced computing capabilities to solve complex problems
Open access; creative commons
availability to all
processing power seems to double every two years
credentials are checked
copy (data) from one computer system to another, typically over the Internet
a method of transmitting or receiving data (especially video and audio material) over a computer network as a steady, continuous flow, allowing playback to proceed while subsequent data is being received
a network of computers configured to allow file sharing
the control or suppression of what can be accessed, published, or viewed on the Internet enacted by regulators, or on their own initiative
open source software
copyright holder provides the rights to study, change, and distribute software
any process in which information is gathered and expressed in a summary form, for purposes such as statistical analysis. A common aggregation purpose is to get more information about particular groups based on specific variables such as age, profession, or income.
software that acts as an intermediary between a computer and another server
Like what we experience when we surf the web
the exclusive legal right, given to an originator or an assignee to print, publish, perform, film, or record literary, artistic, or musical material, and to authorize others to do the same
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
a 1998 US law intended to update copyright law for electronic commerce and electronic content providers. It criminalizes the circumvention of electronic and digital copyright protection systems
the gulf between those who have ready access to Internet and those who don't
social and economic factors that affect a person's abilities to "get ahead"
the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g., buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise
activities of business, industry, and trade
The process of developing creative abilities through exploration, decision making, and expression
anything created by a human using a computer. An artifact can be, but is not limited to, a program, image, audio, video, presentation, or web page file
A program used for software development or system maintenance. Virtually any program or utility that helps programmers or users develop applications or maintain their computers can be called a tool
suppressing the more complex details below the current level
data stored fundamentally as bits
basic unit of information, 1 & 0, on & off
binary, decimal, hexadecimal, etc.
0s and 1s, example: 1101=13
a formal computer language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer; high and low levels
real numbers (floating-point)
representation of decimals
the programs and other operating information used by a computer
Levels of abstractions
Internet languages, blocks that call blocks, high level programming languages vs low level programming languages
low level programming languages
machine language, assembly language
high level programming languages
two possible states: 0, 1
functions that report true or false
an "or" or "and" gate
chip (as an abstraction)
small piece of semi-conducting material
physical components of computers
Data vs Information
Information provides context for data
involving repetition; looping
remove redundant or unwanted information
grouping similar information
organizing data into categories
finding links between variables
data in a graphical format examples: Baby Name Voyager, Gap Minder
retrieving data from data sources
a pattern; trend analysis is attempting to spot a pattern
search engines like Google, subject directions
Filter systems (filter tools)
used to extract a subset of data
data about data; example: memory size of an image
data file formats
how the bits are encoded; .jpg, . xml, .png
lossless data compression
original data can be perfectly reconstructred like zip files
USBs, solid state hard drives, dvds, etc.
the concern that your information is being seen even when you don't want it to be
the concern that your devices aren't safe and secure and your information could be compromised
sequence of actions to be performed
creating the order of actions
compare two values and report true or false
a decision; if, if-else
time required to execute
informal description of algorithm
in www.bhbl.org bhbl is the domain
English, French, German, etc.
can be solved with an algorithm
one that can't be solved
a decision problem that an algorithm can't solve
analyzing data from experiments or observation
check every element, slow, works on any list
the action or process of writing computer programs
repeating a process in order to reach a goal
executed in order
a program that performs tasks
a method or, in Snap, a block
creating a data type that hides the details of the data representation
sequence of characters
part of a sequence of characters
putting strings together (join block)
decimals (with precision issues)
Application Program Interfaces (API's); libraries
Example: Google Maps API lets developers embed maps on web pages
identify and remove errors from computer hardware or software
the range of functions of an electronic system
a value that can change
nothing physical must be built, other factors can be incorporated, new alternatives may be considered based on results, usable results are produced
and, or, not
the values of the variables are true, false
performing the instructions of a program
an instance of a program that is getting executed
spelling and grammar of a computer language
if, if-else, and, or, not
solutions close to to the real solution (approximate)
A continuous representation of data
the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time. e.g. 8 bits/sec.
A ratio such as 5:1 that indicates the ratio of compression that has been applied to a file. High compression ratios such as 35:1 indicate more compression so data can be contained in smaller files.
Summarizes the reduction in size of a file. Can be expressed two different ways, as follows. If more than 1, the compression ratio tells how many times bigger the original file is. If less than 1, the compression ratio tells the percentage by which the original file size has been reduced. A compressed data divided by original data
Small text files that are sent to your computer from certain websites. They track your behaviour and transactions.
A small text file placed on your computer when you visit a Web page. Used to remember you or your preferences when you revisit that page or to track your browsing activities, cookies facilitate virtual shopping carts, page customization, and targeted advertising. They are not programs and cannot read your hard drive or cause damage to your computer.
Creative Commons License
is used when an author wants to give people the right to share, use, and build upon a work that he has created.
What process secures a wireless network by protecting data packets being transmitted?
scrambling the data in a message in a systematic way in order to prevent competitors from electronically monitoring confidential data transmission
Domain internet vs Sub domain (second, third, fourth,, level domains)
For instance, http:// sub.example.com
http is the protocol
sub.example is second level domain
com is top level domain
Process of converting readable data into unreadable characters to prevent unauthorized access.
a problem solving approach (algorithm) to find a satisfactory solution where finding an optimal or exact solution is impractical or impossible.
An iteration structure that repeats one or more statements a specified number of times
High level programming
Provides strong abstraction from the hardware and allows a program to be written in a language that can run on multiple types of computers.
Visual by humans.
Visual Basics, Python, Java.
English type language for programming.
Differentiates the language from assembly language and binary which are technically also programming languages
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
is the set of rules for transferring files (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web. As soon as a Web user opens their Web browser, the user is indirectly making use of HTTP. HTTP is an application protocol that runs on top of the TCP/IP suite of protocols (the foundation protocols for the Internet).
Internet Service Provider
A process that repeats a series of steps over and over until the desired outcome is obtained.
(Joint Photographic Experts Group) The type of image file used most commonly by photographers.
a data compression algorithm that allows the original data to be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed data.
a process of reducing a file's size by altering and/or eliminating some pixels
Malicious software created specifically for the purpose of infiltrating or damaging a computer system without the user's knowledge or consent includes a variety of technologies, including viruses, Trojan horses, worms, spyware, and adware
The principle that Internet service providers should enable access to all content and applications regardless of the source, and without favoring or blocking particular products or websites.
having multiple backups to ensure reliability during cases of high usage or failure. Router - A type of computer that forwards data across a network. Redundant routing is impossible if there is only one possible path from one device to another.
Small chunks of information that have been carefully formed from larger chunks of information.
Portable Network Graphics
This supports advanced transparency, has a relatively average file size, and can be interlaced, optimizing for internet use.
A raster file that supports transparency and is best used for line art, logos, photographs and web but is not suitable for print.
Public Key Encryption
technique that uses a paired public and private key (or asymmetric key) algorithm for secure data communication.
and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors. The name of the model comes from the initials of the three additive primary colors, red(0-255), green(0-255), and blue(0-255).
Google's track record of maintaining excellent performance while dramatically increasing the number of simultaneous users accessing its systems best exemplifies what network/system attribute?
A computer that awaits and responds to requests for data.
When someone pretends to be someone else with the intent of obtaining unauthorized data.
____ is a method of encrypting TCP/IP transmissions above the network layer.
Transmission Control Protocol
What is the program that appears to be a legitimate application, utility, game, or screensaver and that performs malicious activities surreptitiously?
masquerades as beneficial program while quietly destroying/damaging your system
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