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Jazz History - the Avant-Garde
Terms in this set (70)
What is the "Avant-garde"?
- "Avant-garde" was originally used to denote the military advanced guard.
- It eventually came to refer to pioneering work in the arts.
- Avant-gardism was meant to liberate artists from tradition and often went hand in hand with progressive social thought.
What did the First Avant-Garde Wave consist of?
The 1920s avant-garde deliberately set out to break with the artistic past. It was a response to World War I, the expansion of women's rights, and technological advances including radio, talking pictures, and transcontinental flight. This avant-garde was provocative but hopeful.
What was considered to be an inspiration for the first Avant-Garde Wave?
What words describe the first Avant-Garde wave?
Provocative but hopeful
What words describe the second Avant-Garde wave?
uncertainty and anguish
What did the second Avant-Garde wave consist of?
The conditions of the avant-garde of the 1950s and 1960s paralleled those of the 1920s: new colonial wars and occupations, the Cold War, the struggle for racial equality, demands for gender equality, and the unraveling of some settled social conventions. These conditions created a different avant-garde, one that reflected uncertainty and anguish instead of the modernist optimism of the 1920s.
What was considered the expression of the second Avant-Garde wave?
film and jazz
What are four earlier names for avant-garde jazz?
Earlier names for avant-garde jazz included:
a) "anti-jazz," criticizing the avant-garde's apparent attack on mainstream jazz;
b) "free jazz," after the title of an Ornette Coleman album that had a picture of a painting by the modernist Jackson Pollock on its cover;
c) "black music," indicating that the ferocity of the music reflected African American frustrations;
d) "new music," the "New Thing," "revolutionary music," and "fire music."
Describe the rhythm of the avant-garde
Rhythm: Discarded a steady dance beat for an ambiguous pulse, or several pulses at once.
Describe the harmony of the avant-garde
Harmony: Discarded harmonic patterns based on scales and chords for an unpredictable harmony based on the needs of the moment
Describe the melody of the avant-garde
Melody: Whether melodic or noise-heavy, melody was disengaged from traditional harmonic patterns and resolutions.
Describe the structure of the avant-garde
Structure: Blues and song forms were discarded for the creation of form through free improvisation.
Describe the instrumentation of the avant-garde
Instrumentation: In addition to typical jazz instruments, symphonic and world music instruments were used.
Describe the presentation of the avant-garde
Presentation: Jazz was no longer entertainment; it was now serious and challenging—art for art's sake.
Describe the politics of the avant-garde
Politics: Its assertive posture placed it in the general context of the increasingly militant racial and antiwar struggles of the 1950s and 1960s.
The appearance of which two people on the avant-garde jazz scene divided the jazz world?
Ornette Coleman and Cecil Taylor
Why did people fear Ornette Coleman and Cecil Taylor
Most musicians like Duke Elington considered them a threat
Who formed American Jazz Quintet?
What are two aspects of Ornette Coleman's style?
There are two clear aspects of his style:
1. His compositions are strongly melodic and emotional; even his detractors acknowledge that.
2. His saxophone sound is jarring, which alienates people from his music. His use of a plastic saxophone contributes to the harshness of the sound. Coleman was after a sound like the human voice.
Who used microtones?
Who argued that a pitch ought to reflect its context?
Who wrote "Lonely Woman"?
What was noteworthy about the improv in "Lonely Woman"?
There was almost none. Consisted mostly of statements of the melody.
What do the two sections in "Lonely Woman" indicate?
There are two sections to the piece, each indicating a different harmonic area. Haden's playing suggests major and minor key changes.
What is the form of "Lonely Woman"?
A A B A form with no rhythmic structure
What two important projects did Ornette Coleman play in at the end of 1960?
On December 19 and 20, he was featured on two pieces of Schuller's Third Stream album Jazz Abstractions. On December 21, he recorded Free Jazz with his double-quartet, made up of his musicians plus Dolphy and others from the
Schuller session. In contrast to Jazz Abstractions, this music was freely improvised by all the musicians.
What is "harmolodic"?
a contration of harmony, movement, and melody
a key feature of which is that musicians may improvise, even on notated music, in terms of register, key, and octave, as long as the music's melodic integrity is kept intact.
Which fusion band played only notated music?
Prime Time (Ornette Coleman)
What background is Coleman from?
rhythm and blues
What background is Coltrane from?
What background is Cecil Taylor from?
Who recorded the album: Jazz Advance?
What did the album Jazz Advance consist of?
Jazz Advance consists of pieces by Monk and Cole Porter and free-form-like, atonal originals featuring a ferocious rhythmic attack.
What was unique about Cecil Taylor's composition style?
)Taylor did not write conventional scores. He preferred graphic notation to indicate the direction of the music. The musicians did not see these scores. Instead he played what he wanted on the piano and the musicians had to pick it up by ear and improvise on it.
What did Taylor mean with "unit structures"?
He constructed his pieces from modules, or units, and the band worked and improvised through each unit in turn.
Who composed "Bulbs"?
Decribe Taylor's piano playing on "Bulbs"?
percussive, with dense chord structures
Who became the unofficial referee between the the bebop and avant-garde styles?
Who single-handedly made the bass clarinet a jazz instrument?
Who built his style on bebop but took harmonies and timbre further into areas of extreme dissonance.
During the late 1960s, what was attracting people who a generation earlier would have been jazz fans.?
What are three paradoxes, given the avant-garde's outside status?
1. It influenced a surprising number of established but neglected musicians.
2. It was more inclusive than any previous jazz style.
3. It has proved to be as durable as mainstream jazz.
What is the AACM?
Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians
What is the BAG
Black ARtist's group
What is the AEC?
Art Ensemble of Chicago
Where did the Avant -Garde musicians perform in New York?
Some concerts took place in private homes and some in lofts transformed into full-time concert spaces in New York's abandoned warehouse district.
Avant-garde jazz has been around for more than half a century and has become
an educated taste for a small, ardent audience.
Avant-garde jazz was also known as __________, taken from a 1961 album by Ornette Coleman.
Before playing jazz, Cecil Taylor had musical experience in
By "unit structure" Cecil Taylor meant
a short phrase musicians would learn by ear, and use while improvising.
Cecil Taylor was known for (3)
a percussive approach to the piano, composing through the use of "unit structures", and playing long, extended pieces in concert.
Eric Dolphy played (3)
flute, alto saxophone, bass clarinet
In the 1970s, avant-garde music moved its performances from jazz clubs to apartments, galleries, and other places. What was this music called?
Microtones are notes that are
smaller than a half step
Ornette Coleman challenged musical convention by
playing with microtonal pitches.
Ornette Coleman's compositions were
strongly melodic and emotional
The Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians (AACM) was
an avant-garde collective from Chicago.
the pianist and composer ____________ created the hugely influential cooperative Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians (AACM).
Muhal Richard Abrams
The pianist, composer, and bandleader Sun Ra directed a large ensemble called the
The term "harmolodics" is an algamation of the words:
harmony, movement, and melody.
The three key figures in avant-garde jazz are
John Coltrane, Ornette Coleman, and Cecil Taylor
This Cleveland-born saxophonist's career lasted only eight years; during that time, he cultivated an overwhelming timbre, using multiphonics, which can be heard on his album Spiritual Unity.
This disruptive genius was raised in Texas, played at the Five Spot in 1959, and released albums entitled The Shape of Jazz to Come, Change of the Century, and This Is Our Music.
Which artist used unconventional notation for his compositions, and preferred having his musicians learn his music by hearing him play it on the piano?
Which instrument did Cecil Taylor play?
Which instrument does Ornette Coleman play?
Which musician recorded a two-disc album titled For Alto that consisted entirely of unaccompanied saxophone solos
Which pianist plays the instrument as if it were eighty-eight tuned drums, often pummeling the keyboard with his hands in dense cataracts of sound?
Which rhythm section instrument(s) did Ornette Coleman routinely omit on his recordings?
Which venue was particularly important to avant-garde jazz?
The Five Spot
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