AP World History PostClassical Unit
Terms in this set (97)
Revered pre-Islamic shrine in Mecca; incorporated into Muslim worship.
Five Pillars of Faith
The obligatory religious duties for all Muslims: profession of faith, prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, and hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).
Being ruled by an emperor or single ruler of great power
the process of societies conversion to Islam
area above the Sahara desert.
a millennia-long series of migrations of speakers of the original proto-Bantu language group.
the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious icons and other symbols or monuments
Body of Civil Law (Justinian's Code)
a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I-Eastern Roman Emperor.
one of the deadliest pandemics in history
style of roman art and architecture
Incan knot system used to record information
combined organizational structure, procedures, protocols, and set of regulations in place to manage activity
ranking of classes
cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; one of orthodox caliphs; focus for Shi'a
regional splinter dynasty o the mid-10th century; invaded and captured Baghdad; ruled Abbasid Empire under title of sultan; retained Abbasids as figurehead.
the Lion Prince, a member of the Keita clan, created a unified state that became the Mali Empire, died about 1260.
One of Muhammad's earliest converts succeeded Muhammad as first caliph of Islamic community.
Nomadic invaders from central Asia via Persia, staunch Sunnis, ruled in name of Abbasid caliphs from mid-11 century.
Born 1304, Arab traveler who described African societies and cultures in his travel records.
Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan, murdered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt, death set off civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan.
Muslim leader in the last decades of the 12th century, reconquered most of the crusader outposts for Islam.
Created Justinian's code, built the Hagia Sophia
Followers of the majority interpretation within Islam; included the Umayyads.
Mystics within Islam, responsible for expansion of Islam to Southeastern Asia and other regions.
Cyril and Methodius
missionaries sent by the Byzantine government to Eastern Europe and the Balkans, converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity, responsible for the creation of written script for Slavic known as Cyrillic.
Followers of Ali's interpretation of Islam.
born in 1170s in decades following death of Kabul Khan; elected khagan of all Mongol tribes in 1206; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China, territories as far west as the Abbasid regions; died in 1227 prior to conquest of most of the Islamic world
Ruler of the Russian Kingdom of Kiev from 980 to 1015, converted kingdom to Orthodox Christianity.
a landlocked republic in southern central Africa
Muslim slave warriors, established a dynasty in Egypt, defeated the Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260 and halted Mongol advance.
Roman emperor from 312 to 337, established second capital at Constantinople, attempted to use religious force of Christianity to unify empire spiritually.
Supreme God in strictly monotheistic Islam.
symbolized the wealthy potential of Africa
Rulers of Russia
Seagoing Scandinavian raiders from Sweden, Denmark, and Norway who disrupted coastal areas of Western Europe from the 8th century to the 11th century.
Peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system of the Middle Ages.
Early Frankish king, converted Franks to Christianity (496 ce), allowed establishment of Frankish kingdom.
(686-741) Carolingian monarch of Franks, responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732, ended Muslim threat to western Europe.
Charles the Great, Carolingian monarch who established substantial empire in France and Germany (800 ce).
members of the military elite who received land or a benefice from a feudal lord in return for military service and loyalty.
William the Conqueror
Invaded England from Normandy in 1066, extended tight feudal system to England, established administrative system based on sheriffs, established centralized monarchy.
Pope Urban II
Called First Crusade in 1095, appealed to Christians to mount military assult to free the Holy Land from the Muslims.
(1079-1142) Author of Yes and No, university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology, demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine.
(1225-1274) Creator of one of the great synthsese of medieval learning, taught at University of Paris, autor of several Summas, believed that through reason it was posible to know much about natural order, moral law, and nature of God.
Ferdinand & Isabella
united spain, responsiblie for exploration of the new world
Central Mexican Empire
Clans in Aztec society, later expanded to include residential groups that distributed land and provided labor and warriors.
Group of clans centered at Cuzco that were able to create empire incorporating various Andean cultures, term also used for leader of empire.
Ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471, launched a series of military campaigns that gave Incas control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca.
Led expedition of 600 to coast of Mexico in 1519, conquistador responsible for defeat of Aztec Empire, captured Tenochtitlan.
Japanese aristocratic family in mid-9th century, exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs, aided in decline of imperial power.
Mounted troops of Japanese warrior leaders (bushi), loyal to local lords, not the emperor.
Military leaders of the bakufu (military governments in Japan).
Warlord rulers of 300 small states following civil war and disruptions of Ashikaga Shogunate, holdings consolidated into unified and bounded mini-states.
Powerful Japanese family in 11th and 12th centuries, competed with Minamoto family, defeated after Gempei Wars.
Defeated the rival Taira family in Gempei Wars and established military government (bakufu) in 12th century Japan.
Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese, moved into Mekong River delta region at time of Vietnamese drive to the south.
(1215-1294) Grandson of Chinggis Khan, commander of Mongol forces responsible for conquest of China, became khangan in 1260, established Sinicized Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1271.
White Lotus Society
Secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty in China, typical of peasant resistance to Mongol rule.
Royal house of Franks after 8th century until their replacement in 10th century.
Chinese version of Buddhism, placed considerable emphasis on Buddha as God or savior.
Revived ancient Confucian teachings in Song era China, great impact on the dynasties that followed, their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences.
, A branch of Christianity that developed in the western Roman Empire and that recognized the Pope as its supreme head
Chan (Zen) Buddhism
Known as Zen in Japan, stressed mediation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty, popular with members of elite Chinese society.
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
A branch of Christianity that developed in the Byzantine Empire and that did not recognize the Pope as its supreme leader
A Christian sect found in Asia, tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule, cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions.
Struggle, often used for wars in defense of the faith.
Wars that followed Muhammad's death in 632, resulted in defeat of rival prophets and some of the larger clans, restored unity of Islam.
Waged for five years from 1180, on Honshu between Taira and Minamoto families, resulted in destruction of Taira.
Series of military adventures initially launched by western Christians to free Holy Land from Muslims, temporarily succeeded in capturing Jerusalem and establishing Christian kingdoms, later used for other purposes such as commercial wars and extermination of heresy.
Hundred Years War
Conflict between England and France from 1337 to 1453, fought over lands England possessed in France and feudal rights versus the emerging claims of national states.
Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails, strongly influenced European ship design.
Triangular sails attached to the masts of dhows by long booms, or yard arms, which extended diagonally high across the fore aft of the ship.
Created by Cyril
, An alphabet for the writing of Slavic languages, devised in the ninth century A.D. by Saints Cyril and Methodius
Traditions of the prophet Muhammad.
Arabic number system
Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals that ignitied when exposed to water, utilized to drive back the Arab fleets that attacked Constantinople.
Built in 7th century during reign of Yangdi during Sui dynasty, designed to link the original centers of Chinese civilization on the north China plain with the Yangtze river basin to the south, nearly 1200 miles long.
Chinese credit instrument that provided credit vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage, reduced danger of robbery, early form of currency.
Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan, commonly known in the West as hara-kiri, demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor.
Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads as caliphs within Islam, came to power in 750 ce.
African Kingdom before Songhai
Kingdom based on agriculture, formed on lower Congo River bt late 15th century, capital at Mbanza Kongo, ruled by hereditary monarchy.
Clan of Quraysh that dominated politics and commercial economy of Mecca, clan established dynasty as rulers of Islam (661-750).
Successor state to Mali, dominated middle reaches of Niger valley, formed as independent kingdom under a Berber dynasty, capital at Gao, reached imperial status under Sunni Ali (1464-1492).
in southern Africa below the Sahara
neighbored Ghana Empire; had a patriarch
Powerful city-state(present day Nigeria) which came into contact with the Portuguese in 1485 but remained relatively free of European influence, important commercial and political entity until the 19th century.
Kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands, replaced Meroe in first century ce, received strong influence from Arabian peninsula, eventually converted to Christianity.
First African Kingdom of the Postclassical era
Dynasty after the Tang Dynasty
Dynasty that succeeded the Sui in 618 ce, more stable than previous dynasty.
Dynasty that succeeded the Han in China, emerged from strong rulers in northern China, united all of northern China and reconquered southern China.
Central Asian nomadic peoples, smashed Turko-Persian kingdoms, captured Bagdad in 1258 and killed last Abbasid caliph.
Eastern half of Roman Empire following collapse of western half of old empire, retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek, later lost Palestine, Syria, and Egypt to Islam, capital at Constantinople.
Holy Roman Empire
Empire in northern Italy and Germany following the split of Charlemagne's empire.
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