Pepi Greek Notes
Greeks Notes, March 2011, for History.
Terms in this set (42)
the large land-mass which forms the southern part of mainland Greece, a peninsula
the name that the Greeks gave themselves, most Greeks were Indo-European Caucasian
a large land on the Peloponnese peninsula
a Greek city-state
a hilltop fortress in Ancient Athens which included the Parthenon and other famous buildings where citizens met to discuss affairs of the community, Acropolis means high city
Every 1 of 8 words we speak, read, or write every day is Greek in origin.
a government invented by the Greeks where every citizen is allowed to vote, and everybody votes on EVERY issue
the system of government in which a monarch - a king, queen, or emperor- is the sole and absolute ruler
the system of government in which a few people rule
a government totally ruled by a person who isn't a lawful king
the system of government with no law, therefore it is no government
a serious play or theatrical event
lovers of wisdom
a long poem that tells the story of a hero
a Greek epic poet and author of the Iliad and Odyssey
Greeks enjoyed the outdoors, and were out there very often.
Greek historian whose writings, chiefly concerning the Persian Wars, are the earliest known examples of narrative history
The advanced Minoans thrived as a great sea power from 2500-1500 B.C.. They ended abruptly. They were known for jumping over bulls.
Minos- a king of the Minoans, name used by many others (ex. Minotaur)
The Bronze Age
age of the Minoans, called the Bronze Age because the Minoans worked with bronze
The Mycenaeans moved into mainland Greece at around 2000 B.C., and dominated history for the next 700 years.
The Trojan War
According to the Iliad, by Homer, an army of Mycenaeans and Achaeans (the Mycenaeans' allies) destroyed Troy around about 1290 B.C. because a Trojan named Paris had kidnapped Helen, the wife of the Greek king Menelaus. It lasted 10 years.
After the Trojan War
After the Trojan war, Mycenaean civilization collapsed and their palaces were destroyed. New invaders, the Dorians, came from the north, and because of this, there is a 400-year "Dark Ages" gap in Greek history.
The Heroic Age
The Heroic Age was the age of the Mycenaeans and the Trojan War.
Rise of the Polis
After 750 B.C., a new era began, characterized by the rise of the poleis.
After 750 B.C., democratic institutions rose. Greek armies were mostly common citizens, unlike the Heroic Age when they could afford weapons and equipment. But when the citizen's role of defending their polis grew, so did their demand for a voice in their government. Soon they revolted, and they were usually led by ambitious aristocrats called tyrants.
The ambitious aristocrats, tyrants, often completed huge building programs and spoke up for the growth of colonies all over the Mediterranean Sea. These colonies remained loyal to the mother polis and became a source of trade and wealth.
By 600 B.C., Athens and Sparta were the leading poleis. For Athens, the rising of democracy would take years of reforming before the Golden Age was realized.
a poet/philosopher/merchant who ruled the government once in Athens
Solon's predecessor, who told Solon changes that would help Athens
Greek tyrant who seized power and divided estates among landless farmers
Athenian reformer of late 6th century BCE; established democratic Council of 500 in Athens and introduced ostracism
a method of banishing citizens who were dangerous to their polis
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece
Sparta created a strong military state, and marched backward in cultural achievement. Sparta did have men of deep courage and bravery, but at a price. No great statues, temples, philosophical theories, or epic poems came from Sparta.
Greeks did manage to unite on some occasions, like in 500 to 480 B.C., when the Persian Empire attacked. The Greeks met them at the Marathon, a plain in Greece. The Persians were repulsed, and a runner was sent 26 miles to Athens to announce the victory.
Persians Strike Again
Ten years after the Battle of the Marathon, the Persians invaded again. The Greeks were not prepared and sent a small force to stall. Athenians took refuge on Salamis, a nearby island, to watch the Persians burn their city, forcing King Xerxes to withdraw to Asia Minor. A year later, at Plataea, the Greeks beat them and the menace was over.
a king of Sparta and hero of the Battle of Thermopylae (fighting with 300 other Spartans) where he was killed by the Persians (died in 480 BC)
Athens Rises Again
With the Persian threat over, Athens had a burst of artistic energy and original thought from 480-430 B.C. while Athens was lead by Pericles. Businesses grew and trade brought wealth. The Parthenon on Acropolis sprang up.
Athenian statesman whose leadership as one of Athens' kings contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece
Athens' Civil War
In 431 B.C., Athens fought Sparta in the Peloponnesian war, a war over the peninsula, Pelopennesus. After fighting for 27 years, the Athenian navy was destroyed and Sparta occupied Athens. Athens still remained the cultural center for Greece for many years.
recorded the Peloponnesian war