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Chapter 7 The Skeleton

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80
how many bones make up the axial skeleton?
three
How many regions is the axial skeleton broken into?
skull, vertebral column, and bony thorax
What three regions is the axial skeleton broken into?
skull
Wht is the body's most complex bony structure?
cranium and facial bones
What forms the skull?
skull
What is formed by the cranium and facial bones?
cranium
What protects the brain and is the site of attachment for the head and neck muscles?
facial bones
What supplies the framework of the face, the sense organs, and the teeth?
Facial Bones
What provides openings for the passage of air and food?
facial bones
What anchors the facial muscles of expression?
8
How many cranial bones are there?
2 parietal, 2 temporal, frontal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethomoid
What are the 8 cranial bones?
cranial bones
What are thin and remarkably strong for their weight?
Frontal Bone
What forms the anterior portion of the cranium
anterior portion
What part of the cranium does the frontal bone form?
Frontal Bone
What articulates posteriorly with the parietal bones via the coronal suture?
Frontal Bone
What bones major markings include the supraorbital margins, the anterior cranial fossa, and the frontal sinuses (internal and lateral to the glabella)?
coronal suture
What suture separates the frontal and parietal bones?
muscle attachment
What is the styloid process for?
mastoid
What is a hard porous spongey bone behind the ear that branches out for muscle attachment?
Parietal bones
What form most of the superior and lateral aspects of the skull?
4 sutures
How many sutures mark the articulations of the parietal bones?
coronal suture
Which suture has articulation between parietal bones and frontal bones anteriorly?
Sagittal Suture
Which suture is where the right and left parietal bones meet superiorly?
Lambdoid Suture
Which suture is where parietal bones meet the occipital bone posteriorly?
Squamosal suture
Which suture is where the parietal and temporal bones meet?
squamous suture
What is the squamosal suture also known as?
occipital bone
What forms most of the skull's posterior wall and base?
Occipital
What bones major markings include the posterior cranial fossa, foramen magnum, occipital condyles, and the hypoglossal canal?
Occipital Condyle
Where does the head rest on the spine?
Occipital Bone
Which bone helps with our vision?
Temporal Bones
What forms the inferolateral aspects of the skull and parts of the cranial floor?
Temporal Bones
What is divided into four major regions-squamous, tympanic, mastoid, and petrous?
4
how many regions are the temporal bones broken into?
squamous, tympanic, mastoid, and petrous
What are the four regions of the temporal bones?
Temporal Bones
What bones major markings include the zygomatic, styloid, and mastoid processes, and the mandibular and middle cranial fossae?
Temporal Bones
Which bones major openings include the stylomastoid and jugular foramina, the external and internal auditory meatuses, and the carotid canal?
major blood vessels
WHat run through the jugular foramina?
Cheek bone
What is the zygomatic process also known as?
ear canal
What is the external acoustic meatus?
Sphenoid bone
What is a butterfly-shaped bone that spans the width of the middle cranial fossa?
Sphenoid Bone
What forms the central wedge that articulates with all other cranial bones?
Sphenoid Bone
What consists of a central body, greater wings, lesser wings, and pterygoid processes?
Sphenoid Bone
What bones major markings include the sella turcica, hypophyseal fossa, and the pterygoid processes?
Sphenoid Bone
What bones major openings include the foramina rotundum, ovale, and spinosum; the optic canals; and the superior orbital fissure?
foramen
What is a major area where blood vessels and nerves move through?
Optic Canal
What is it called where nerves for the eyes pass through?
Ethmoid Bone
WHat is most deep of the skull bones; lies between the sphenoid and nasal bones?
Sphenoid and nasal bones
What bones does the ethmoid bone lie between?
Ethmoid Bone
What forms most of the bony area between the nasal cavity and the orbits?
Ethmoid Bone
What bones major markings include the cribriform plate, crista galli, perpendicular plate, nasal conchae, and the ethmoid sinuses?
Offactory foramina
What contains the senses for smell?
Wormian Bones
What are tiny irregularly shaped bones that appear within sutures?
Facial BOnes
What are fourteen bones of which only the mandible and vomer are unpaired?
Mandible and Vomer
What are the only two facial bones that are unpaired?
14
How many bones make up the facial bones?
Facial Bones
What has the paired bones that are called the maxillae, the zygomatics, the nasals, lacrimals, palatines, and inferior conchae?
lacrimal glands
What makes up your tearducts?
mandible
What is the largest strongest bone of the face?
mandible
What bones major markings include the coronoid process, mandibular condyle, the alveolar margin, and the mandibular and mental foramina?
major nerve
What does the mental foramen contain?
palatine
What is the roof of the mouth called?
Maxillary Bones
What are medially fused bones that make up the upper jaw and the central portion of the facial skeleton?
Maxillary Bones
What are facial keystone bones that articulate with al other facial bones except the mandible?
Maxillary Bones
What bones major markings include palatine, frontal, and zygomatic processes, the alveolar margins, inferior orbital fisure, and the maxillary sinuses?
infraorbital foramen
What do the nerves from the eyes pass through?
Zygomatic Bones
What are irregularly shaped bones that form the prominences of the cheeks and the inferolateral margins of the orbits?
Nasal bones
What are thin medially fused bones that form the bridge of the nose?
Lacrimal bones
WHat contribute to the medial walls of the orbit and contain a deep groove called the lacrimal fossa that houses the lacrimal sac?
Palatine Bones
What are two bone plates that form portions of the hard palate, the posterolateral walls of the nasal cavity, and a small part of the orbits?
Vomer
What is a plow-shaped bone that forms part of the nsal septum?
Inferior nasal conchae
What are paried, curved bones in the nasal cavity that form part of the lateral walls of the nasal cavity?
forehead
Where is another spot sinuses are located besides in the nose?
Orbits
What are bony cavities in which the eyes are firmly encases and cushioned by fatty tissue?
Orbits
What are formed by parts of seven bones-frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, maxilla, palatine, lacrimal, and ethmoid?
Nasal Cavity
What are constructed of bone and hyaline cartilage?
Roof
What of the nasal cavity is formed by the cribriform plate of the ethmoid?
Lateral walls
What of the nasal cavity is formed by the superior and middle conchae of the ethmoid, the perpendicular plate of the palatine, and the inferior nasal conchae?
Floor
What of the nasal cavity is formed by palatine process of the maxillae and palatine bone?
resonates our voice
What is there spongy bone near our mouth?
Paranasal Sinuses
What is mucosa-lined, air-filled sacs found in five skull bones-the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and paired maxillary bones?
Paranasal Sinuses
What air enters the paransal sinuses from the nasal cavity and mucus drains into the nsala cavity from the sinuses?
Paranasal Sinuses
What lighten the skull and enhance the resonance of the voice?
Hyoid Bone
What is not actually part of the skull, but lies just inferior to the mandible in the anterior neck?
Hyoid Bone
What is the only bone of the body that does not articulate directly with another bone?
Hyoid Bone
What is the attachment point for neck muscles that rais and lower the larynx during swallowing and speech?
26
How many irregular shaped bone form the vertebral column?
Vertebral Column
What is formed from 26 irregular bones that are connected in such a way that a flexible curved structure results?
Cervical Vertebrae
What are the 7 bones of the neck?
Thoracic Vertebrae
What are the 12 bones of the torso?
Lumbar Vertebrae
What are the 5 bones of the lower back?
Sacrum
WHat is the bone inferior to the lumbar vertebrae that articulates with the hip bones?
Vertebral Column
What protects the spinal cord?
Vertebral column
What is a place of attachment for ribs and muscles of the neck and back?
cervical and lumbar
What part of the vertebral column does the posteriorly concave curvactures affect?
thoracic and sacral
What part of the vertebral column does the posteriorly convex curvatures affect?
scoliosis
What is the abnormal lateral curve also known as?
kyphosis
What is being hunchback also known as?
lordosis
What is being swayback also known as?
scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis
What are three examples of abnormal spine curvatures?
Vertebral column anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments
What are continuous bands down the front and back of the spine from the neck to the sacrum?
short ligaments
What connect adjoining vertebrae together?
because bones rub together
What are crushed disks very painful?
Intervertebral discs
What are cushion-like pads composed of two parts?
Nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus
what are the two parts of intervertebral discs?
Nucleus pulposus
WHat are inner gelatinous nucleus that gives the disc its elasticity and compressibility?
elasticity and compressibility
What two things does the nucleus pulposus give the intervertebral discs?
Annulus fibrosus
What surrounds the nucleus pulposus with a collar composed of collagen and firbrocartilage?
centrum
What is the body of the vertebrae also known as?
centrum
What is disc-shaped, and a weight bearing region of the vertebrae?
Vertebral arch
What is composed of pedicles and laminae that, along with the centrum, enclose the vertebral foramen?
Vertebral foramina
What make up the vertebral canal through which the spinal cord passes?
spinal cord
What pases through the vertebral foramen?
7
how many cervical vertebrae are there?
cervical vertebrae
What are the smallest, lightest vertebrae?
cervical vertebrae
What kind of vertebrae are distinguished with an oval body, short spinous processes, and large, triangular vertebral foramina?
a transverse foramen
What does each transverse process contain?
the atlas
What has no body and no spinous process?
the atlas
What consists of anterior and posterior arches, and two lateral masses?
the atlas
What are the superior surfaces of lateral masses articulate with the occipital condyles?
the axis
What has a body, spine, and vertebral arches as do other cervical vertebrae?
the dens (odontoid process)
What is unique to the axis?
odontoid process
What projects superiorly from the body and is cradled in the anterior arch of the atlas?
the dens
What is a pivot for the rotation of the atlas?
12
how many thoracic vertebrae are there?
thoracic vertebrae
What kind of vertebrae articulates with ribs?
Thoracic vertebrae
What kind of vertebraes major markings include two facets and two demifacets on the heart-shaped body, the circular vertebral foramen, transverse processes, and a long spinous process?
5
How many lumbar vertebrae are there?
Lumbar Vertebrae
What kind of vertebrae is located in the small of the back and have an enchanced weight-bearing function?
stability
What does the orientation of articular facets that lock the lumbar vertebrae together provide?
5
How many fused vertebrae make up the sacrum?
sacrum
What consists of five fused vertebrae which shape the posterior wall of the pelvis?
sacrum
what articulates with L5 superiorly, and with the auricular surfacs of the hip bones?
sacrum
what part of the vertebraes major markings include the sacral promontory, transverse lines, alae, dorsal sacral foramina, sacral Canal, and sacral hiatus?
4
How many fused vertebrae make up the coccyx?
Coccyx
what is made up of four (in some cases 3-5) fused vertebrae that articualte superiorly with the sacrum?
so your chest can expand whenyou breath
Why does the costal cartialge of the ribs have to be flexible?
thoracic cage
What is composed of the thoracic vertebrae dorsally, the ribs laterally, and the sternum and costal crtilages anteriorly?
bony thorax
What is the thoracic cage also known as?
bony thorax
What forms a protective cage around the heart, lungs, and great blood vessels?
Bony thorax
What supports the shoulder dirdles and upper limbs?
Bony thorax
What provides attachment for many neck, back, chest, and shoulder muscles?
Bony thorax
What uses intercostal muscles to lift and depress the thorax during breathing?
intercostal muscles
What does the bony thorax use to lift and depress the thorax during breathing?
breastbone
WHat is the sternum also known as?
sternum
What is a dagger shaped, flat bone that lies in the anterior midline of the thorax?
sternum
What results from the fusion of thre bones-the superior manubrium, the body, and the inferior xiphoid process?
sternum
What bones anatomical landmarks include the jugular (suprasternal) notch, the sternal angle, and the xiphisternal joint?
12
How many pairs of ribs form the flaring sides of the throacic cage?
thoracic cage
What do the ribs make up?
posteriorly
How do all ribs attach to the thoracic vertebrae?
true ribs
What are the superior 7 pair of ribs known as?
true ribs
What attaches directly to the sternum via costal cartilaes?
False ribs
What attach indirectly to the sternum via costal cartilage?
floating ribs
What kind of ribs have no anterior attachment?
true rib
What are bowed, flat bone consisting of a head, neck, tubercle, and shaft?
tubercle
What is where muscle attaches bone to bone?
Appendicular skeleton
What is made up of the bones of the limbs and their girdles?
pectoral girdles
What attach the upper limbs to the body trunk?
Pelvic girdle
What secures the lower limbs?
shoulder girdles
What are the pectoral girdles also called?
pectoral girdles
What consist of the anterior clavicles and the posterior scapulae?
Pectoral girdles
What attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton in a mnner that allows for maximum movement?
Pectoral girdles
What provide attachment points for muscles that move the upper limbs?
collarbones
What are the clavicles also known as?
clavicles
What are slender, doubly curved long bones lying across the superior thorax?
clavicles
What are the acromial (lateral) end articulates with the scapula, and the sternal (medial) end articulates with the sternum?
clavicles
What provide attachment points for numberous muscles, and act as braces to hold the scapulae and arms out laterally away from the body?
shoulder blades
What is the scapulae also known as?
Scapulae
What are triangular, flat bones lying on the dorsal surface of the rib cage, between the second and seventh ribs?
Scapulae
What have three borders and three angles?
Scapulae
What bones major markings include the suprascapular notch, the supraspinous and infraspinous fossae, the spine, the acromion, and the coracoid process?
blood vessels and nerves
What pass throuh the suprascapular notch?
glenoid cavity
Where does the humerus attach?
The upper limb
What consists of the arm, forearm, and hand?
manus
What is another name for the hand?
antebrachium
What is another name for the forearm?
Brachium
What is another name for the arm?
the arm, forearm and hand
What does the upper limb consist of?
37
how many bones form the skeletal framework of each upper limb?
The humerus
What is the sole bone of the arm?
the arm
What articulates with the scapula at the shoulder, and the radius and ulna at the elbow?
Proximal humerus
What part of the arms major markings include the head, anatomical and surgical necks, greater and lesser tubercles, and the intertubercular groove?
greater and lesser tubercles
What is the site of attachment for the rotator cuff?
Distal humerus
What part of the arms major markings include the capitulum, trochlea, medial and lateral epicondyles, and the coronoid and oleranon fossae?
The funny bone
What has an ulnar nerve that runs behind the medial epicondyle?
medial portion
What part of the arms major markings include the radial groove and the deltoid process?
Ulna
What is longer the Ulna or the Radius?
the radius and ulna
What bones make up the forearm?
the forearm
What articulates proximally with the humerus and distally with the wrist bones?
the forearm
What also articulates with each other proximally and distally at small radioulnar joints?
Interosseous membrane
What connects the two bones of the forearm along their entire length?
the ulna
What lies medially in the forearm and is slightly longer than the radius?
the ulna
What forms the major portion of the elbow joint with the humerus?
Ulna
What bone of the forearms major markings include the olecranon, coronoid process, trochlear notch, radial notch, and the styloid process?
the radius
What lies opposite (lateral to) the ulna and is thin at its proximal end, widened distally?
the radius
what has the superior surface of the head articulates with the capitulum of the humerus+
the radius
What medially, has the head articulates with the radial notch of the ulna?
the radius
What bone of the forearms major markings include the radial tuberosity, ulnar notch, and styloid process?
Skeleton of the hand
What contains wrist bones, bones of the palm and bones of the fingers?
carpals
What is another name for wrist bones?
metacarpals
What is another name for the bones of the palm?
phalanges
What is another name for the bones of the fingers?
8
how many bones make up the wrist?
schaphoid, lunate, triquetral, and pisiform
What are the four bones of the wrist that lie proximally?
trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate
What are the four bones of the wrist that lie distally?
metacarpal bones
What radiate from the wrist to form the palm?
metacarpus
What has their bases articulate with the carpals proximally, and with each other medially and laterally?
metacarpus
What has its heads articulate with the phalanges?
14
how many phalanges are in each hand?
long bones
What kind of bones are the phalanges considered?
digits
what are fingers also known as? (besides phalanges)
pollex
what is another name for the thumb?
thumb
When numbering your fingers from 1-5 which finger do you start with ?
distal, middle, and proximal
Each finger (except the thumb) has three phalanges, what are they called?
a middle phalanx
What doesn't the thumb have?
os coxae, or coxl
what are two other names for the two hip bones?
sacrum, coccyx, and the hip bones
What bones form the bony pelvis?
Acetabulum
Where does the femur conect to the hip bones?
bladder, prostate, kidneys, and female reproductive organs
What are 4 examples of visceral organs in the pelvic girdle?
The pelvis
What attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton?
the pelvis
What has the strongest ligaments of the body?
the pelvis
What trasmits weight of the upper body to the lower limbs?
the pelvic girdle
What supports the visceral organs of the pelvis?
the ilium
What is a large flaring bones that forms the superior region of the coxal bone?
ilium
What consists of a body and a superior winglike portion called the ala?
ala
What is the superior winglike portion of the ilium called?
gluteus maximus
What does the broad posterolatearl surface of the ilium called the glutearl surface make?
Sciatic Nerve
What nerve causes lower back pain?
Ilium
What has the auricular surface articulate with the sacrum?
sacroiliac joint
What is the joint called where the ilium attaches to the sacrum?
Ilium
What part of the hip has its major markings inlcude the iliac crests, four spines, greater sciatic notch, iliac fossa, arcuate line, and the pelvic brim?
Ischium
What forms the posteroinferior part of the hip bone?
ischium
What has the thick body articlates with the ilium, and the thinner ramus articualtes with the pubis?
the pubic bone
What forms the anterior portion of the hip bone?
pubic
what articulates with the ischium and the ilium?
the pubis
What part of the hip has its major markings include superior and inferior rami, the pubic crest, pubic tubercle, pubic arch, pubic symphysis, and obturator forament (along with ilium and ischium)?
female
male/female pelvic structure: tilted forward, adapted for childbearing?
female
male/female pelvic structure: true pelvis defines birth canal?
female
male/female pelvic structure: cavity of the true pelvis is broad, shallow, and has greater capacity?
male
male/female pelvic structure: tilted less forward
male
male/female pelvic structure: adapted for support of heavier build and stronger muscles
male
male/female pelvic structure: cacity of true pelvis is narrow and deep?
thigh, leg, and foot
What three segments make up the lower limb?
the lower limb
What carry the weight of the erect body, and arsubjecte to exceptional forces when one jumps or runs?
femur
What is the sole bone of the thigh?
femur
What is the largest and strongest bone inthe body?
femur
What articulates proximally with the hip and distally with the tibia and fiublar?
femur
What part of the lower limb has major markings that include the head, fovea capitis, greater and lesser trochanters, gluteal tuerosity, lateral and medial condyles and epicondyles, linea aspera, patellar surface?
Knee cap
What is another name for the patellar?
the tibia and fibula
what form the skeleton of the leg?
interosseous membrane
What connect the tibia and the fibula?
leg
What articulaes with the femur proximally and with the nakles bones distally?
leg
What also articulates with each other via the immovable tibiofibular joints?
tibia
What receives the weight of the body from teh femur and trasmits it to the foot?
tibia
What part of the leg has the major markings that include medial and lateral condyles, intercondylar eminence, the tibial tuberosity, anterior crest, medial malleolus, and fibular notch?
Tibia
Which bone of the leg is bigger the fibula or the tibia?
fibula
What is a sticklike bone with slighly expanded ends located laterally to the tibia?
fibula
What part of the leg has the major markings that include the head and the alteral malleoulus?
the skelton of the foot
What includes the tarsus, metatarsus, and the phalanges?
the foot
What supports body weight and acts as a lever to propel the body forwrad in walking and running?
7
how many bones make up the tarsus?
talus and calcaneus
what is body weight primarily carried on?
talus
What articulates with the tibia and fibulasuperiorly, and the calcaneus inferiorly?
cuboid, navicular, medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiforms
What are the six other bones of the tarsus?
Calcaneus
What forms the heel of the foot?
calcaneus
What carries the talus on its superior surface?
calcaneus
What is the point of attachment for the calcaneal (achilles) tendon of the calf muscles?
Ball of the foot
What does the enlarged head of metatarsal 1 form?
14
how many bones make up the phalanges of the foot?
3
In the foot how many phalanges does each digit have?
the hallux
What digit of the foot has no middle phalanx?