Terms in this set (22)
divine command theory
a theory asserting that the morally right action is the one that God commands;
right actions are those willed by God
the view that some moral principles are valid for everyone
the view that an action is morally right if one approves of it;
individuals are morally infallible and moral disagreement is nearly impossible;
action X is right for Ann if she approves, and wrong for Greg if he disapproves.
an action is morally right if one's culture approves of it;
cultures are morally infallible, social reformers can never be morally right;
moral progress is impossible
if premises are true, conclusion absolutely has to be true
a valid argument with true premises is said to be sound
a fallacy which assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented;
a particular action will lead to other actions that will result in disaster
A fallacy in which a faulty conclusion is reached because of inadequate evidence.
Drawing a conclusion about an entire group based on an undersized sample of the group
A fallacy that occurs when a speaker chooses a deliberately poor or oversimplified example in order to ridicule and refute an idea.
misrepresenting someone's claim so it can be easily refuted
begging the question
Often called circular reasoning, occurs when the believability of the evidence depends on the believability of the claim.
P is true because P is true
moral rightness of an action is determined by its results (consequences) only
theory that the right action is the one that advances one's own best interests;
one's only moral duty is to promote the most favorable balance of good over evil for oneself, putting his or her own welfare first
the motive for all of our actions is self interest
the morally right action is the one that produces the most favorable balance of good over evil, everyone considered
Kant's second formulation of categorical imperative
we must always treat people as ends in themselves, never merely as a means to an end
natural law theory
right actions are those that accord with natural law;
how nature is reveals how it should be. the goals to which nature inclines reveals the values that we should embrace and the moral purposes to which we should aspire
instead of "what should I do?" it's "what should I be?"
moral conduct is something that emanates from a person's virtues and character, not obedience to moral law
Violinist Scenario (Thomson - abortion)
a violinist has fatal kidney ailment
you are the only one that can save him
you are kidnapped and his circulatory system is plugged into yours to save his life.
to unplug him from you would be to kill him.
Marquis's argument against abortion
1) It is seriously prima facie wrong to deprive someone of a valuable future like ours
2) Abortion deprives someone of a valuable future like ours
3) Therefore, abortion is seriously prima facie wrong
because a fetus possesses a property that makes killing an adult wrong, abortion is wrong.
moral standards are not applicable to war, war must be judged on how well it serves the state interests
War is never morally permissible because it produces more bad than good and violates a fundamental right to life
just war theory
war may be morally permissible under stipulated conditions
1) cause must be just
2) must be sanctioned by proper authority
3) fought with right intention
4) armed conflict is last resort
5) good must be proportional to bad
6) reasonable chance of success