Terms in this set (60)
Which of the following is not originally produced by the vascular cambium?
Which tissue is responsible for the elongation of shoots and roots in woody plants?
Which tissue is responsible for transporting water and soluble nutrients from the roots to the shoots and leaves?
Which of the following is not an example of a static target?
A person resting under a tree
More reaction wood is formed on branches or trunks which are
Which CODIT wall attempts to prevent the movement of decay up and down the trunk?
Which CODIT wall attempts to prevent the movement of decay into new wood produced after the initial infection?
Which aspect ratio is most preferable when considering branch structure?
A proper live crown ratio:
A and B are both correct (provides energy to lower portions of a tree trunk and encourages proper taper)
Which is NOT a potential sign or symptom of girdling roots?
Surface roots in the surrounding landscape
Which of the following is NOT an indication of a weak branch attachment?
A lateral branch which is much smaller than its parent branch
Which is NOT a major function of woody (non-fibrous) roots?
Water and nutrient absorption
Which is of the following is a desirable live crown ratio?
What is one consequence of leaf stomata being closed?
What is the most limiting factor for root growth?
Low soil oxygen
Rank the 4 walls as described by CODIT in order of their relative strength from strongest (1) to weakest (4)
Wall 1 - 4
Wall 2 - 3
Wall 3 - 2
Wall 4 - 1
Risk = __________ x _____________
Probability X consequences
What two general criteria must be met for a tree to be considered a hazard?
Increased risk to fail
Must have a target
What are two potential visual signs of decay?
A cavity open to the outside if the tree
Conks caused by fungi
List three functions of tree root systems
List the three general passive defenses a tree may have against decay?
Annual growth rings
If a trees mature height is expected to be 100ft, ideally how far apart should permanent branches be spaced?
What are two types of reaction wood and what type of trees form each?
What two general factors place a tree at increased risk of failure?
Not enough Anchorage by the roots
Is a tree whose trunk has a three foot diameter at increased risk of failure if it has a cavity that is two and one half feet in diameter? If so why?
Yes, the cavity is more than 1/3 the diameter and is weak
What is the most serious defect a branch union can have?
Bark rubbing against bark
Which type of pruning cut has the lowest risk of leading to decay?
A removal cut with diameter of 2"
Which of the following statements describes a proper reduction cut?
The branch which remains is at least 1/3 the diameter of the branch removed
Which of the following is a desirable aspect ratio for a removal cut?
When is the ideal time to conduct rejuvenation pruning from a plant health perspective?
Which of the following is not a potential negative consequence of pruning a tree?
The IDEAL pruning cycle for a young tree is
The pruning dosage for a young tree is
Dependent on the trees health, species and pruning cycle
"Improving plant health by increasing light penetration and air flow through the canopy" is the objective of what type of pruning?
"Reducing the risk to people, property and the trees health by removing dead, broken, cracked, or diseased wood, rubbing branches and weakly attaches branches" is the objective of which type of pruning?
Recently transplanted trees should be watered
Lightly and frequently
Stakes used to support a newly planted tree
Should be removed after one or two growing seasons
Which of the following has been shown to be conclusively beneficial for a newly planted tree?
Mulching over the planting hole
If a containerized trees root ball is 10 inches tall and it's root flare is 3 inches deep in the container what is the correct depth of a planting hole for the tree?
If the same tree from question 13's root ball is 12 inches wide how wide should the planting hole be?
Which type of shrub pruning will make an overgrown shrub look youthful again?
What are some advantages and disadvantages of container nursery stock?
Advantages: easier to move around, smaller root ball, can be less expensive than bare root
Disadvantages: prone to stress, girdling and circling roots, and can dry out if not planted properly
Why is the ideal maximum pruning dose for a mature tree less than the ideal maximum for a young tree?
Mature trees don't put on as much growth as a young tree and it takes them longer to heal and more likely have heartwood compared to a young tree. Young trees are quicker to heal and can seal wounds at a faster rate.
Why are newly planted trees and shrubs prone to stress?
They don't have an established root system
What sort of growth form does repeatedly shearing a shrub lead to?
Dense canopy and woody stems that can be seen below the canopy
What is the preferred aspect ration for a permanent branch? Why are we less concerned about the absolute size of the permanent branch?
.5 aspect ratio for a permanent branch. We are less concerned because the branch is going to stay since it is permanent.
Why is deep planting harmful to the long term health of a tree?
It can lead to girdling/circling roots and there is not enough air when planted too deeply that will cause decline to the plants health
What are the negative consequences of over thinning the interior of a larger trees canopy?
Poor taper, increased risk of failure, lions tailing, reduction in photosynthesis and structural issues
Describe an ideal reduction cut. Be sure to mention the relative sizes of the branches involved.
The reduction cut should be 4" or less if the larger branch. You're taking a large branch to a smaller branch
Why are conifers generally less tolerant of pruning than deciduous trees?
Conifers do not put in as much growth as deciduous trees, they also don't have buds like them
What is the minimum acceptable live crown ratio for a tree?
When it comes to ash trees..
Make a plan/ have a plan to either treat or remove it
Tree wrap is used
To protect from deer/ animals and fluctuating temperatures
What are the options for treating iron deficiencies
Foilar iron fertilizers
Cheated iron fertilizers
Much less available in alkaline soils
What goes into determining pruning cycle?
Age health and structure
What goes into determining pruning cycle
Where do woody plants store energy?
Roots, xylem of branches (sapwood)
What are the three different meristems present in woodsy plants? What tissues do they produce?
Apical (rooftop bud root length) cambium (lateral growth) cork cambium (outer bark)
What is the ideal time to prune spring and summer flowering shrubs?
Spring- after bloom
Summer- late winter
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