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Arts and Humanities
Jazz History - Fusion: Jazz, Rock, and Beyond
Terms in this set (106)
What fusion did the late 1960s see?
The late 1960s saw the rise of a fusion between jazz and the rhythms, instrumentation, and repertory of rock.
As swing faded, what three additional stylistic successors became apparent aside from bebop?
rhythm and blues (R&B)
mainstream pop vocals
What did "jump" focus on?
An offshoot of swing called "jump" focused on blues, fast tempos, brash, humorous lyrics, and ensemble riffs.
What did "jump" become known as?
Rhythm and Blues
Which artist had 60 hits on both the R&B charts and the predominantly white, mainstream pop charts.
What is much of Jordan's success contributed to?
Much of Jordan's success was due to his use of a southern black cultural humor that blacks related to and whites could decode well enough. He emphasized the humanity of being black (a lesson learned from his early experience in minstrelsy), creating new black archetypes.
What did Ray Charles represent?
He represented a fusion of swing, bop, R&B, gospel, and rock, using gospel techniques in secular music.
What kind of choir did Ray Charles use?
a choir of women singers, the Raelettes.
What is soul jazz based on?
Who introduced the Hammond B3 organ?
Who plays on "O.G.D."?
What decade is often referred to as the golden age for singers of the American songbook.
What benefit did the returning soldiers give to vocalists in the 1950s?
Returning soldiers were used to singers with big bands, which made for a built-in audience for the large number of vocalists who had graduated from big bands and were looking for solo careers.
Nat King Cole
jazz pianist and pop singer
Who was the first African American to be offered his own TV show?
Nat King Cole - it was cancelled because of lack of support
Who was Frank Sinatra's idol?
What did Sinatra believe about phrasing?
Sinatra believed that phrasing should emphasize the lyric.
How did Sinatra improvise?
Why did Ellington admire Sinatra?
He made songs believable
Who was the first one to think of an LP as a concert album?
Where did Sinatra emerge from?
Tin Pan Alley and swing
Where did Vaughan emerge from?
Vaughan came from the heart of jazz: bop harmonies, rhythms, and improvisation.
Who recorded "All of Me"?
What are three cuban influences?
Cuban influence includes the rumba of the 1930s, the mambo of the 1940s, and the cha-cha-cha of the 1950s.
What is Cubop?
an Afro-Cuban style of jazz
Who introduced Cubop?
When was the real breakthrough for Cubop?
The real breakthrough for Afro-Cuban jazz came when Dizzy Gillespie started working toward a Latin jazz fusion with his 1946 big band. He hired conga player Chano Pozo and bongo player Chiquitico for a concert at Carnegie Hall. Dizzy learned about this music from Bauzá when they were both in the Calloway band.
Who recorded "Manteca"?
Dizzy Gillespie and his orchestra
What influences is Samba made up of?
an amalgam of march rhythms and African dance music.
What is the Samba rhythm?
It does not use clave but rather is characterized by two beats per measure with an accent on the second beat.
Who recorded "Só danço Samba"?
Stan Getz and João Gilberto
What are the two sections of the son?
the canta, with a melody sung by the vocalist, followed by the montuno, named for a short repeating passage.
What is the form of "Un día bonito"?
what is 'soneo"
improvising both words and melody
What album mixes Jazz and salsa
The Sun of Latin Music
What was rock and roll in the 50s?
a mix of the rhythms of R&B
with the sound of hillbilly and country music
How did jazz musicians consider rock and roll?
Jazz musicians considered it immature and a fad, unlike jazz, which had a history and an adult sensibility.
How were the youth a challenge to jazz during rock and roll?
Youth: The young, relatively well-off baby boomer generation wanted to listen to musicians who were also young, not older jazz musicians who had been honing their art for decades.
How did Electronics and recordings pose a challenge to jazz during rock and roll?
Amplifications and electronic manipulation of sound produced a whole new range of timbres with which jazz musicians found it difficult to keep pace. Rock depended on studio production techniques, something that many jazz musicians disdained, believing that recordings should re-create the live sound of a band.
How did rhythm pose a challenge to jazz during rock and roll?
By the 1960s, rock was played in an even-eighths groove as opposed to a swing groove. Many jazz musicians refused to adjust on aesthetic grounds, or found it difficult to adjust even if they wanted to.
How did the group idealogy pose a challenge to jazz during rock and roll?
Rock focused on the group in contrast to jazz, which focused more on each contributing musician. Jazz eventually developed a group-oriented creative process.
How did virtuosity pose a challenge to jazz during rock and roll?
Since the time of bebop, jazz musicians had been expected to have a high level of virtuosity. Earlier rock musicians disdained this capability in favor of a "do-ityourself" ethic of folk and blues, which shifted focus from the individual musicians to the
band, song, and songwriter.
What was the contemporary version of "race music."?
soul and funk
What instrument did Chick Corea play?>
What did Miles Davis begin to introduce to his band?
Which album heralded the arrival of "fusion"?
What was the Mahavishnu
A fusion orchestra with a focus on the electric guitar
Who is Herbie Hancock?
Hancock is a complex postbop pianist and composer
What did Chick Corea's model his Return to Forever on?
Mahavishnu Orchestra's style as away of discovering an artistically and commercially viable mode of fusion.
What was the longest lived fusion group?
Who started using the electic piano?
Who removed the frets on the bass to create a singing sound?
Who is featured on "Teen Town"?
Who recorded "Cantaloupe Island"?
piano - solo concerts and interactive trio
describe smooth jazz
an inoffensive blending of jazz and upbeat R&B and funk in an easy listening atmosphere
Who is the best selling maestro of smooth jazz
What is Acid Jazz?
fusion of hiphop and jazz
___________ arose from the streets of the Bronx in the 1970s and by the 1980s had spread throughout the country.
Acid Jazz is
a DJ-driven pastiche of old soul-jazz recordings.
Although fusion from the late 1960s is often called "jazz-rock," it really resulted from jazz's borrowings from
soul or funk
Among the crucial contributions of James Brown to fusion was
a multilayered rhythm section.
Among the earliest jazz-rock fusion bands in the 1960s was
Emergency! (with Tony Williams).
Among those who appeared on early Miles Davis fusion albums were
Chick Corea, Joe Zawinul, and John McLaughlin.
Chick Corea played ______ in his band, ______.
electric keyboard; Return to Forever
In 1973, the bop saxophonist and flutist _____________ made an album called Part of the Search, exploring his memories of black radio hits.
In the 1990s, groups like Digable Planets, A Tribe Called Quest, Buckshot LeFonque, and Jason Moran fused jazz with
Jaco Pastorius was a virtuoso on the
Keith Jarrett's highly successful Köln Concert (1975) was the inspiration for
acoustic new age music
On In a Silent Way and Bitches Brew, Miles Davis
edited the audio tracks heavily in studio post-production.
One challenge that jazz faced in its competition with rock was
rock musicians' increased use of new technologies in the recording studio.
The fusion breakthrough was sparked in 1970 by fusion recordings by this major jazz figure
This commercially successful fusion band of the 1970s featured Joe Zawinul and Wayne Shorter.
This smooth jazz artist, who has sold an astonishing 48 million recordings, evoked howls of derision for his dubbed "duets" with Louis Armstrong.
Through hit tunes such as "Chameleon," which keyboardist has balanced his mastery of acoustic jazz against his funk-driven fusion?
What are slash chords?
triads resting on top of unrelated bass roots (e.g., E/C, or "E-slash-C")
What changes did Miles Davis make in his band in 1968?
He replaced bass and piano with their electric equivalents.
What did John McLaughlin's Mahavishnu Orchestra contribute to the fusion scene?
high volume and unusual meters (18 or 20 beats per measure)
What musical revolution occurred outside the gates of jazz and popular music in the middle 1950s?
rock and roll
Which of the following is among the best known of the contemporary jazz "jam bands"?
Medeski, Martin and Wood
Which of the following most directly affected jazz musicians' ability to participate in the rock revolution?
__________ was a skilled jazz improviser nicknamed "Sassy." She was trained in bebop, had a matchless four-octave range, and was also a pop performer for Mercury records.
A clave is (3)
a. a time-line pattern on which Cuban music is based.
b. Spanish for "keystone."
c. a syncopated rhythm, used in two forms (son and rumba).
Did soul jazz use orchestral instruments?
What was a TV show that featured jazz score?
Peter Gunn and The Untouchables.
Antônio Carlos Brasileiro de Almeidea (Tom) Jobim was a key figure in
bossa nova in the 1960s.
Chano Pozo was
a Cuban conga player who performed with Dizzy Gillespie.
During which time frame was jazz most thoroughly integrated into the popular entertainment industry?
Swing Era (1935-1945)
From which country did bossa nova emerge?
In the 1940s, the success of the saxophonist and bandleader ______ helped to cement the position of rhythm and blues as black entertainment.
In the 1950s, the vocalist __________ successfully fused the blues, bebop, and gospel into a new and highly influential form of black entertainment.
In the mid-1960s, Latin American musicians created a new hybrid style known as
Like most of the mature singers of the 1950s, Frank Sinatra used __________ for his hit recordings.
the 33-1/3 rpm long-playing album
Most mainstream singers of the 1950s (3)
began with big bands during the Swing Era.
recorded songs from the peak of Tin Pan Alley songwriting.
were promoted by the new medium of television.
One crucial factor for the switch in Latin jazz to Brazilian music in the early 1960s was
the Cuban revolution in 1959.
The "incredible" Jimmy Smith played the
Hammond B3 organ
The earliest form of rhythm and blues was known in the 1940s as
The highly popular organ trio usually included __________ as accompaniment to the organ.
drums and electric guitar
The mixture of Cuban music and jazz in the 1940s was known as
The term "fusion" refers to the boundary between jazz and
This artist's recording of a nonsense song about food was so popular that she was featured on the cover of Time magazine.
This bebop pioneer became a pioneer of Afro-Cuban jazz.
This New Orleans musician foretold the centrality of Latin jazz by saying, "If you can't manage to put tinges of Spanish into your tunes, you will never be able to get the right seasoning, I call it, for jazz."
Jelly Roll Morton
wo jazz artists responsible for fusing bossa nova with jazz in the 1960s were
Charlie Byrd and Stan Getz.
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