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The mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and is reflected over the anterior surface of the eyeball is the conjunctiva.


Researchers have found that retinal ganglionic fields are of two types: on center or off center.


The photoreceptor cells are sensitive to damage from light.


Both the cornea and the lens are vascular.


The optic disc is the location where the optic nerve leaves the eyeball.


Sour taste receptors are stimulated by hydrogen ions of acidic food substances.


The fluid contained within the membranous labyrinth is called perilymph.


The extrinsic eye muscle motor units contain only 8 to 12 muscle cells and in some cases as
few as 2 or 3 muscle cells.


Retinal detachment always results in loss of vision.


The structure that allows equalization of the pressure in the middle ear with that outside the body is the external auditory meatus.


The bending of light rays is called reflection.


The anterior chamber of the eye is filled with vitreous humor.


The neural layer of the retina prevents excessive scattering of light within the eye.


In order for sound to reach the spiral organ (of Corti), the auditory ossicles must vibrate the oval window and set the endolymph in motion.


Sound is generally perceived in the occipital lobe of the cerebral cortex.


Light passes through the entire thickness of the neural layer of the retina to excite the


Without a functioning crista ampullaris, the semicircular canals would not function.


Contraction of the ciliary muscle causes the lens to bend the light less.


Theoretically, an individual born without a middle ear would be able to hear by bone conduction with a hearing aid.


When we move from darkness to bright light, retinal sensitivity is lost, but visual acuity is gained.


The function of the lens of the eye is to allow precise focusing of light on the retina.


Each olfactory cortical neuron receives input from one receptor at a time.


Odorants must be volatile to be smelled.

vision in dim light

What is the main function of the rods in the eye?


What structure regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye?


Receptors for hearing are located in the ________.

olfactory receptor cells

Which of the follow types of neurons are replaced throughout adult life?

tarsal glands

The oil component found in tears is produced by the ________.


The receptor for static equilibrium is the ________.


Farsightedness is more properly called ________.


Seventy percent of all sensory receptors are located in the ________.

pharyngotympanic tube

Which of the following structures is not part of the external ear?

cross over to the opposite side at the chiasma

Nerve fibers from the medial aspect of each eye ________.

has no blood supply

Ordinarily, it is not possible to transplant tissues from one person to another, yet corneas can
be transplanted without tissue rejection. This is because the cornea ________.

scala vestibuli

The oval window is connected directly to which passageway?

ganglion cells

There are three layers of neurons in the retina. The axons of which of these neuron layers form the optic nerves?

lateral geniculate body of the thalamus

The first "way station" in the visual pathway from the eye, after there has been partial crossover of the fibers in the optic chiasma, is the ________.

outer hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane

As sound levels increase in the spiral organ (of Corti), ________.

Complete adaptation occurs in about one to five minutes.

Which of the following is true about gustatory receptors?

in filiform papillae

Taste buds are not found ________.

Some of the sensation of olfaction is actually one of pain.

Select the correct statement about olfaction.

tarsal gland secretions

What prevents the eyelids from sticking together when the eyes close?

umami amino acids glutamate and lysine

Which of the following taste sensations is incorrectly matched to the chemicals that produce it?


U.S. employees must wear hearing protection at ________ dB or above.

a bone pillar in the center of the cochlea

What is a modiolus?

Vitamin supplements can reverse degenerative changes.

Which statement about malnutrition-induced night blindness is most accurate?

involves accumulation of rhodopsin

Dark adaptation ________.

occipital lobe of the cortex

Conscious perception of vision probably reflects activity in the ________.

primary visual cortex

In the visual pathways to the brain, the optic radiations project to the ________.

suprachiasmatic nucleus

Visual inputs to the ________ serve to synchronize biorhythms with natural light and dark.

brain stem reflex centers

Information from balance receptors goes directly to the ________.

result from mismatch between visual and vestibular inputs

Motion sickness seems to ________.

despite the fact that the fetus cannot see, functional visual cortical connections are established

In the uterus ________.

often use only one eye at a time

Most newborns ________.

the optic nerve leaves the eye

The blind spot of the eye is where ________.

optic vesicles

The first vestiges of eyes in the embryo are called ________.

frequency: loudness

Which pairing of terms is incorrectly related?

substances in solution

Olfactory cells and taste buds are normally stimulated by ________.

optic chiasma

Which of the following could not be seen as one looks into the eye with an ophthalmoscope?

ganglion cells

The cells of the retina in which action potentials are generated are the ________.

rhodopsin accumulates in the rods

During dark adaptation ________.

Ménière's syndrome

Tinnitis, vertigo, and gradual hearing loss typify the disorder called ________.

They are unipolar neurons.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of olfactory receptor cells?


An essential part of the maculae involved in static equilibrium is (are) the ________.

When we see the color of an object, all light is being absorbed by that object except for the
color being experienced.

Which of the following is true about light and vision?

is connected to the levator palpebrae

The tarsal plate of the eyelid ________.

Rods absorb light throughout the visual spectrum but confer only gray tone vision.

Which of the following is true about photoreceptors?

Cristae respond to angular acceleration and deceleration.

Select the correct statement about equilibrium.

inferior oblique

The eye muscle that elevates and turns the eye laterally is the ________.

gustatory hairs

The receptor membranes of gustatory cells are ________.

cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor (CALV)

Light passes through the following structures in which order?


Damage to the medial recti muscles would probably affect ________.

It requires processing at the cortical level.

Which statement about sound localization is not true?

cochlear nerve degeneration

Which of the following is not a possible cause of conduction deafness?

night vision

Visual processing in the thalamus does not contribute significantly to ________.

UV and infrared

Visible light fits between ________.

modified apocrine sweat glands

Ceruminous glands are ________.

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