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Ch. 37: Neurons, Synapses, Signaling
Terms in this set (28)
Nerve cells which transfer information. Organelles in the CELL BODY
most of the neurons organelles are in
highly branched extensions that receive signals from other neurons
(stimulates and receives)
Transmits signals to other cells.
The branched ends of axons transmit signals to
other cells at a junction
Chemical messengers which pass information from the transmitting neuron to the receiving cell.
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
Transmits information from sensors that detect external and internal stimuli.
information sent to the brain where it INTERNEURONS Integrate the information and connect neurons.
-interneurons are either sensory nor motor
Carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce (effect) movement.
Central Nervous System
Controls most functions of the body and mind. It consists of two parts: the brain and the spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System
Neurons that carry information into and out of the CNS. These neurons bundled together form NERVES.
The potential inside a cell membrane measured relative to the fluid just outside
-it is NEGATIVE under resting conditions and becomes POSITIVE during an action potential.
the electrical potential of a neuron or other excitable cell relative to its surroundings when not stimulated or involved in passage of an impulse.
(changes in membrane potential act as signals transmitting and processing information)
Sodium Potassium Pump
Active transport is responsible for the fact that cells contain a relatively HIGH concentrations of potassium K+ ions INSIDE the cell
low concentrations of sodium ions Na+ . This moves these ions in opposite directions across the plasma membrane
Gated ion channels
Open and close in response to stimuli.
opening gated ion channels triggering a reduction in the magnitude of the membrane potential
*occurs if gated NA+ channels open and Na+ diffuses into the cell.
Electrical membrane potential of a cell rapidly rises and falls
*depolarizing shifts the membrane potential sufficiently it results in a massive change in membrane voltage =AP
occurs whenever a depolarizing increases the membrane potential to a particular value = THRESHOLD
are responsible for maintaining the concentration gradients of + charged ions across the neuron membrane during the resting potential
OPENING OF GATED POTASSIUM CHANNELS
cause the most the most repolarization across the neuron membrane which creates the falling phase of the AP
- in vertebrates/axons insulation
-Enables fast conduction of action potential.
-Produced by glia
oligodendrocytes in CNS and schwann cells in PNS
produced myelin sheaths
nodes of Ranvier
gaps in the myelin sheath where voltage gated Na+ channels are found
*the expose area=unmyelinated
AP in myelinated axons jumping between the nodes of Ranvier
Ligand ion channels
Group of transmembrane ion channel proteins which open to allow ions Na+ and K+ to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
*many synaptic transmission involve binding of neurotransmitters
the cell body of one postsynaptic neuron may receive inputs from hundreds of thousands or hundreds of synapse terminals
binding causes ion channels to open
*generally a postsynaptic potential
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