Russian Rev & totalitarianism

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Industrialization
Process of industrial development in which countries evolve economically, from producing basic, primary goods to using modern factories for mass-producing goods. At the highest levels of development, national economies are geared mainly toward the delivery of services and exchange of information.
Russification
A policy of forcing Russian culture on ethnic groups in the Russian Empire
Pogrom
An organized massacre of a particular ethnic group.
Duma
Russian Parliament
Trans-Siberian Railway
A rail line built between 1891 and 1904 to connect European Russia with Russian ports on the pacific ocean.
Bloody Sunday
(in Russia) 9 January 1905 (22 January in the New Style calendar), when troops attacked and killed hundreds of unarmed workers who had gathered in St Petersburg to present a petition to the Czar.
Russo-Japanese war
A conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea.
March Revolution
(1917) women textile workers went on strike, had riots over shortages of bread & fuel, people were fed up with autocracy; the soldiers joined the side of the women
World war one
1914-1918. Germany, Turkey, Austro- Hungary (Central Powers) vs. Britain, France, Russia (Triple Entente) The US entered in April 1917 because of UBoats and the Zimmerman Telegram.
Bolshevik Revolution
The overthrow of Russia's Provisional Government in the fall of 1917 by Lenin and his Bolshevik forces, made possible by the government's continuing defeat in the war, its failure to bring political reform, and a further decline in the conditions of everyday life.
Communism
A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
Communist Manifesto
This is the 1848 book written by Karl Marx and Fredric Engels which urges an uprising by workers to seize control of the factors of production from the upper and middle classes.
Bourgeoisie
Middle Class
Proletariat
Karl Marx's term for the working class in a capitalist society.
Peasants
people who worked the land or served the nobles
Intelligentsia
intellectuals or highly educated people as a group
Red army
After the Russian Revolution, the Soviet military became known as the______________________.
White army
made up of different groups who supported the return of the czar; wanted democratic government; socialists who opposed Lenin's style of socialism; against Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
1917 Russian revolutionary group (of communists) who seized power in Russia during the October Revolution to found the Soviet Union
Mensheviks
The party which opposed to the Bolsheviks. Started in 1903 by Martov, after dispute with Lenin. The Mensheviks wanted a democratic party with mass membership.
Soviets
A Russian council composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers.
Provisional Goverment
a temporary goverment
Russian civil war
(1918-1921); sparked when Soviet leader Lenin signed the Brest-Litovsk Treaty with Germany and withdrew Russia from the Great War; Lenin hoped to give the Soviets time to assume full control of Russia; however, a civil war ensued between the Soviet "Red Army" and the anticommunist "White" armies; but by early 1921, the civil war was won by the communists; RESULTS: Russia's industrial production had decreased eighty percent since 1913 and agricultural output had dropped by fifty percent; millions of Russians had also died thanks to the combat, disease, and starvation; a famine in 1921.
Leninism
Lenin's interpretation of Marxism. This included his belief that workers alone cannot organize a revolution; they need professional revolutionaries to give them a "shove" (inspiration), as well as his belief that sometimes a revolution must be slowed or reversed to ensure that power can be maintained by the proletariat. And finally, this made clear his belief that revolution can occur at any time, in any place, and not just in an advanced capitalist nation. This three points justified the need for Lenin and the Bolsheviks, the NEP, and all this occuring in Russia respectively.
Marxism
..., the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
Soviet Union
A communist country in Europe and Asia between 1917-1991 made up of 15 republics, or separate nations
New Economic policy
(NEP) Plan introduced by Lenin after the Russian civil war. Essentially it was a tactical retreat from war communism, allowing some private ownership among the peasants to stimulate agrarian production.
Totalitarianism
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Five Year Plan
Stalin's economic policy to rebuild the Soviet economy after WWI. tried to improve heavy industry and improve farm output, but resulted in famine
Great purges
Also called the Terror, the Great Purges of the late 1930s were a massive attempt to cleanse the Soviet Union of supposed "enemies of the people"; nearly a million people were executed between 1936 and 1941, and 4 million or 5 million more were sentenced to forced labor in the gulag.
Terror
"The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, or the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social goals."
Propaganda
Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.
Secret Police
They were used to eliminate the enemies of the government; helped czar stay in power in Russia
Gulag
a Russian prison camp for political prisoners
Collectivization
Creation of large, state-run farms rather than individual holdings; allowed more efficient control over peasants; part of Stalin's economic and political planning; often adopted in other Communist regimes.
Kulaks
Rich peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labour. They were their own class.
Alexander 3
thought freeing the serfs caused his fathers death-becomes reactionary and reverses his fathers reforms->autocratic, no voting, no advancement. really nasty against jews
Romanov Family
Last dynasty to rule over Russia after the death of the Rurik family and a struggle for power against the Godunov family. In-laws of Ivan the terrible.
Nicholas 2
became Czar in 1894, continued the tradition of russian autocracy, 1914 put Russia into WW1. A few years later he stepped down following the March Revolution. He and his family were executed a year later.
Alexandra
Last czarist of Russia, had a son who was a hemophiliac, and was put under the influence of Rasputin, where he exploited her. Ended up causing the collapse of the czars
Alexei
ill only son of the Romanovs. Hemophiliac and heir to the throne. Healed by Rasputin.
Karl Marx
1818-1883. 19th century philosopher, political economist, sociologist, humanist, political theorist, and revolutionary. Often recognized as the father of communism. Analysis of history led to his belief that communism would replace capitalism as it replaced feudalism. Believed in a classless society.
Rasputin
Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Czarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues.
Vladimir Lenin
Leader of the Bolshevik (later Communist) Party. He lived in exile in Switzerland until 1917, then returned to Russia to lead the Bolsheviks to victory during the Russian Revolution and the civil war that followed.
Leon Trotsky
Russian revolutionary intellectual and close adviser to Lenin. A leader of the Bolshevik Revolution (1917), he was later expelled from the Communist Party (1927) and banished (1929) for his opposition to the authoritarianism of Stalin
Alexander Kerensky
Headed the Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty.
Joseph Stalin
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition
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