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Animal Science Final
Terms in this set (40)
Year domesticated: horse
Year domesticated: dog
Year domesticated: cat
Year domesticated: sheep
Year domesticated: cattle
Year domesticated: swine
When we domesticate animals what do we provide to them and they provide to us?
Animals get steady supply of nutrients, shelter, and protection from predators. Humans get companionship, draft, food, and fiber.
What is animal science?
The utilization of animals for food, fiber, work, and recreation.
What products do we receive from animals?
Food, fiber, work, and recreation.
What are the 6 classes of nutrients?
Water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, and vitamins
What is a nutrient?
Any feed constituent that functions in the support of life
What separates each of the nutrients?
List the 10 essential amino acids
Phenylalinine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, methionine, histidine, arginine, leucine, lysine, taurine (cats)
Conversion of N to protein
N x 6.25
How much more energy is in carbs than fats
Fats have 2.25 x the energy content of carbs
Three classes of carbs
Monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides
Three classes of fatty acids
Saturated (single bonds btw carbons), unsaturated (one of more double bonds btw carbons), and polyunsaturated (more than one double bond)
chemical elements other than carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
Two classifications of vitamins
Fat soluble and water soluble
What are the different classes of animals based on their digestive structure?
Ruminants (cattle, sheep, deer), monogastric (swine, canines, humans), and pseudo ruminants (horses, rabbits)
Grass roughage eaters
Large rumens, non selective in forage, large meals long time ruminating
Small rumens, very selective in forages (forbs only), numerous small meals throughout the day
Four chambers of ruminant
Rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum
What is the heat cycle?
Period of time when female accepts male for mating purposes
How do estrogen and progesterone effect the estrus cycle?
Estrogen releases signal to hypothalamus to release GnRH; progesterone acts to prevent the release of LH and FSH, when progesterone is removed cyclicity begins again
Be able to identify follicles: corpus luteum, primary follicle, ovulated follicle, pre ovulatory follicle, primary follicle
Look at hormones chart
Look at female and male reproductive tracts
Difference between short day, long day, and poly estrus
Short day (sheep/goat, cycle as days get shorter), long day (mare, cycle as days get longer), poly estrus (cows, uniform cycles throughout year)
Different types of percent and examples
Diffuse (sows and mares), cotyledonary (cows, ewes, does), zonary (dogs), discoid (primates and rats)
got mostly yellow, but green peas sometimes from the recessive trait
What laws did Mendel create?
Breeding industry structure
Pyramid from top to bottom: elite breeders, multipliers, commercial producers
each cell splits into two daughter cells with full number of chromosomes
daughter cells that only carry one copy of each chromosome
DNA and RNA
DNA template codes for RNA
Heterosis/ hybrid vigor
an increase in the performance of hybrids over the average of purebreds
Types of behavior in animals
sexual, caregiving, care soliciting, ingestive, eliminative, shelter seeking, investigative, allelomimetic, agonistic
Adult male, adult female, young male, young female, generic young, castrated male, food product of all animals
Gestation period, body temperature, pulse rate, and breathing rate of all animals
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