Rutherford B. Hayes
19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history.
Southern soldiers who returned home found...
their houses destroyed and their farms either barren or burnt.
Majority of the state had to swear loyalty in order to be re-elected.
Termed the "Iron-Clad Oath."
Did not only have to swear loyalty, but swear that they were never truly disloyal, therefore denying the honor of the Southern cause.
Lincoln's Reaction to Wade-Davis Bill
He thought it was too harsh and would keep the Union disconnected for too long.
Pocket-vetoed the bill (ignored the bill until it went away).
If a president does not sign a bill within 10 days it is the same as a veto.
If congress is out of session by the time it is pocket-vetoed then they can't use 2/3 majority.
Midterm election of 1866
Radical Republicans gain control of Congress with 2/3 majority, so they are veto-proof.
Views on Andrew Johnson
Northern republicans think he will go too easy on the South and Southerners see him as a traitor because he is administrating terms of U.S. government towards the South.
Not liked by anyone.
10% loyalty oath.
Required ratification of 13th amendment (slave citizenship).
States must declare the secession and slavery are illegal within the new state constitutions.
Why do the Radical Republicans believe they must direct reconstruction?
The South refused to go along with Johnson's plan even though it was lenient.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Called for citizenship and the accompanying rights for African Americans.
Vetoed by Andrew Johnson because he does not believe blacks deserve extra rights, but he is overridden by the 2/3 majority vote.
Response to the Black Codes.
1) Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, 4) Repudiate (reject) confederate debts
"Equal protection under the law"
Counteracts black codes.
Military Reconstruction Act
Response to that lack of ratification of the 14th Amendment.
Divides South into 5 military districts (except for Tennessee).
Union general would be at the head of each district.
In order for the states to be readmitted, the state majority must swear allegiance to the Union and each Southern state must produce a new constitution in which they ratified the 14th amendment and gave black men voting rights.
Marshall Law was implemented.
Until demands of the Military Reconstruction Act were met...
Union generals would monitor the treatment of African Americans within their district and the generals could take on judicial control.
Limited presidential control over army and said he could not interfere with military reconstruction.
Tenure of Office Act
Forbade Andrew Johnson from firing cabinet positions without senate approval.
Secretary of War and Radical Republican who wanted harsh treatment for South.
Johnson fires him to challenge the Radical Republicans, causing Johnson's impeachment.
Need 50%+ to impeach in House and 2/3 majority in Senate.
One vote short of 2/3 majority needed because of a freshman senator who felt bad.
After this, Johnson is submissive.
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states.
Southern republicans, considered turncoats (traitors) by neighbors.
Worked with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners.
Southern reaction to the 13th Amendment.
Limited rights of newly freed blacks.
-had to carry passes
-couldn't testify against whites in courts
-couldn't marry whites
-couldn't carry guns
Poll Tax, Grandfather Clause, and Literacy Tests
Southern Reactions to the 14th and 15th Amendments.
Ku Klux Klan
Greek for "inner circle."
Formed by Southern confederates and sympathizers.
Opposed the Union League.
Intimidated blacks from voting.
Invisible Empire of the South.
Jim Crow Laws
Came about in the 1880s and 1890s, so slightly after reconstruction.
Separate but equal.
Landowners gave seed and land to tenant farmers and the farmer would have to give a % of their harvest to the owner. The debt kept sharecroppers from ever being able to breakaway and rule their own land.
When sharecropper dies, the debt goes to his children.
By 1876, all states were free of Military Reconstruction except...
South Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida
Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican Governor of Ohio (where there are many Electoral College members) and former Civil War General.
Ran in election of 1876.
Ran as a democrat in the election of 1876.
A reformist governor who had made a name for himself fighting corruption in NYC.
Election of 1876
Democrats win popular vote and Tilden is the winner of enough electoral votes on the first count, but votes in 3 states, Louisiana, Florida, and South Carolina, are disputed.
They find in favor of Hayes in all three states -> clearly rigged.
Special process created by the Republican Congress to look into the votes in Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida
How did Republicans handle the democratic outrage as a result of the election of 1876?
They ended military reconstruction in the three states (South Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida).
Election of 1868
Grant runs for presidency and his war popularity guarantees the Republican victory.
The black vote tilt the election in his favor.
Fisk and Gould Scandal
Investors wanted to corner the Gold market and manipulate gold circulation.
They got the treasury to stop selling gold through influence with Grant's brother-in-law.
The value of gold skyrocketed.
The treasury released gold for sale and Fisk and Gould have sold theirs. Now everyone else's is deflated and the market is flooded with new supply -> stocks crash ("Black Friday").
-Credit-Mobilier is a company hired by the Union Pacific railroad to build the transcontinental railroad.
-It was really made up of the same railroad business officials who hired themselves to build the railroad with huge sums of taxpayer money from the Union Pacific to Credit-Mobilier (thus they were being overpaid with their own company's money).
NY newspapers ratted it out and two members of Congress were censured and Grant's vice president is shown to have been involved.
Federal Revenue Agents defraud the government of millions in taxes for kickbacks from the liquor industry.
Election of 1872
Liberal Republicans form an independent faction, upset with "Grantism" and wanted to return the party to its reformer roots.
They ran Horace Greeley, a NY newspaper editor with odd political views.
Despite the scandals, more citizens trust Grant who is more popular and he is re-elected.