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Microbio303: Pathogens of Human Beings
Terms in this set (60)
What are the 3 important concepts about E. coli?
-Type III secretion system: deliver effectors directly into the cell
What is the important concept about Chlamydia?
It is an intracellular bacterial pathogen
What is the important concept about Clostridium difficle?
1)Describe its relationship with humans.
2)Is it Gram + or -? Does it form spores? What is it rod or cocci? What is the oxygen profile?
3)What is the optimal growth temp?
4)Can it ferment lactose?
5)Can it form indole?
1)It is mainly a commensal/mutualistic organism, but when certain genetic components are added to it, it can become pathogenic
2)Gram (-), non-sporing, facultative anaerobe, rod or ovoid shape
3)37 degrees C
1)What are the three general types of infection?
2)What is the one type of enteric diarrheal disease you have to know called?
1)Urinary tract infection, sepsis/meningitis, and enteric diarrheal disease (7 pathovars)
Where do mutualisitc E.coli live in vs. pathogenic?
Mutualistic= large intestine
Pathogenic=small bowel (small intestine?)
What enhance pathogens ability to colonize the intestines? And how?
: by helping them adhere to the
1)How can it be transmitted? What animal is an important source?
2)Do you need a high or low infective dose?
3)What is the incubation period?
4)What are the symptoms?
5)What is a common complication?
7)What is the diagnosis and treatment?
1)by food and water, or also by person-to-person contact.
can have it but not be affected and if we eat the beef, we get sick
infective dose: 100-200 microbes
4)Abdominal pain and short lived fever, followed by
diarrhea, vomiting in 50% of cases
-within 1-2 days the dirrhea turns
with increased abdominal pain and can last 4-10 days
5)Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) about 10% get
6)Adhere to surface of intestine and use
Type III secretion system
to inject effectors, like
-Pathogeneicity island (LEE)--locus of enterocyte effacing
7)Diagnose: culture microbe or seriological tests against LPS or flagella to identify strain, OR O157 antigen are available
Treatment= supportive care, NO antibiotics
In the pathogensis of EHEC, phage infection is carried by what?
1)What ages does it affect?
2)How does it work?
3)What are the physical symptoms?
1) young (5 or less) and old (65 and older)
2)Toxin is escapes into blood stream and kills erythrocytes
3)Damage to blood vessels, kidney, and kidney failure, and high blood pressure
1)What is it encoded on?
2)Can it integrate into E.coli genome?
3)It is also produced by what organism?
4)How does it get secreted from cell?
5)How does the phage get induced, and what happens?
6)How does the toxin get released?
, that are lysogenic
2)Yes--can integrate into E.coli genome
4)It can't get secreted from the cell
5)Phage induction due to stress and induces expression of toxin
6)Phage-mediated lysis of bacterium releases toxin
1)What type of toxin is Shiga toxin?
2)Describe how it binds and enters the cell and how it affects the cell once inside.
1) AB toxin
2)-Binds with B subunit to GB3 on host cells (kidney or intestine)--cattle lack these receptor
-A subunit enter, cleaves rRNA and kills cells
What subunit binds and what subunit enter the cell for AB toxin?
What does the A subunit do?
A subunit cleaves rRNA and kills cells
What is the most ubiquitous pathogens on the face of the globe?
1)What is the range of organisms it can infect?
2)It is an
obligate intracellular parasite
of what domain?
3)Why does it have to be an obligate intracellular parasite?
1)Mollusks to humans
3)It doesn't have a cell wall peptidoglycan & it is very temperature sensitive
What is the important pathogen of Chlamydia?
1)It is the most prevalent
disease--90 million cases annually
2)It is one complication of what disease?
3)What other areas of the body can it infect?
2)Pelvic inflammatory disease
3)Eye infections, respiratory disease, & joint infections
1)Describe the pathogenesis.
2)Describe the growth cycle.
1)Infect epithelial cells of cervix--bacteria ascend into endometrium and fallopian tubes
-strong inflammatory response--can get scarring and occlusion
2)Exist in two forms: elementary body (small transmissible from) & reticulate body (large replicative form)
For Chlamydia trachomatic growth cycle, which is the transmissible form and which is the replicative form called?
Reticulate body (RB)=replicative form
1)It is metabolically ______
2)What does it contain on its outer surface that help it stick to the host and taken up?
3)What does it do once it is inside?
4)What does it actively do to prevent being degraded in the cell?
5)What does it differentiate into?
3)Stimulate their own uptake by a process that resembles phagocytosis
4)Endosome vesicles interfere with lysosome fusion and acidification and actively prevent the vescile from fusing
1)By ____ age, most adults have been exposed to this pathogen.
2)Sometimes called atypical or walking pneumonia
Pretty sure Chlamydia trachomatis can cause this?
1)It depends on the host genome replication process--T or F?
2)It replicates until about ____ organisms
3)At this point what two options does chlamydia have?
1)FALSE: it begins genome replication, growth, and division
-Turn back into EM, lyse cell, and find other cells to infect
-Adopt a non-infectious non-replicating persistant form
1)It has four major pathogens, what is the one we talked about in lecture?
2)Is it Gram + or-? What is the oxygen profile? Are the spore-forming
3)They are obligate fermenters--T or F?
4)Where are they commonly found?
5)Is in the firmicutes
1)C. difficile--health care associated (diharrea diseases)
4)Soil, water, normal flora
What pathogen did we talk about which were firmicutes?
1)What are the types of infections?
2)What characteristics make it a successful pathogen?
3)Does it have slow or rapid growth?
4)Is it toxigenic?
5)What are the symptoms
6)What are some of the complication?
1)Skin and soft tissue, food-poisoning, antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis
2)Able to survive adverse environment-spores
4)Produce several types of toxins
5)Mild-severe diarrhea, bloating, abdominal pain
5)fever, leukocytosis (high white cells), pseudomembraneous colitis, toxic megacolon (large colon), sepsis shock, death
Which pathogen is associated with antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis?
Action of the toxins in Clostridia:
1)What are the two toxins?
2)How do they damage cells?
3)What type of cells do they damage?
1) A and B (tcdA, tcdB)
2)Damage cells by
inactivating Rac and Pho GTPase
3)These cells are important cell signaling molecules, cell rounding, apoptosis
1)Describe the prevention of Clostridia.
2)Describe the treatment.
1)Barrier methods to prevent spores from reaching patients OR altered antibiotic prescription
2)-Metronidazole or vancomycin
What antibiotics are used to treat Clostridia?
Metronidazole or vancomycin
1)They are infectious _____.
2)Is it made by a single or multiple gene?
3)Function is unknown
4)The infectious Prp ____ differently.
5)It can bind to soil and be infectious up to _ years?
Choronic Wasting Disease:
1)What are the symptoms?
2)Describe the transmssion.
3)Describe the treatment.
1)weight loss, isolation from herd, loss of coordination, hypersalvitation, frequent urination, excessive thirst
2)oral ingestion of prions, excrement, PrP binds to soil and can be infectious for 2 years later
What is the causative agent of Malaria?
Plasmodium life in the mosquito:
1)The male or female takes a blood meal?
2)The gametocytes go to the ____ and undergo fertilizaiton
3)Where does it mature and become infective once "hatched"?
2)go to gut
Plasmodium life in humans:
1)What are the two life stages and what happens in them?
: may divide for a while, then go to dormant for a while
: stock to red blood cells, begin to feed on RBC, cause RBC to lyse, when many lyse at once--crisis
Which stage of Plasmodium in humans is life threatening?
Blood stage: it sticks to RBC and can lyse them
Treatment & Resistance of Plasmodium:
1)Treatment depends on species of Plasmodium and wheterh complicated or non-complicated
2)What are two drugs?
Plasmodium (Malaria) is naturally immunity imperfect, what does this mean?
Once get it are immune, but if a new strain attacks you, you can get sick.
Chloroquine and Paraquine are treatments for what disease?
Many strains resistant to antibiotics such as MRSA and Cancomycin, what pathogen has these strains?
1)Is it Gram + or -? Is it rod or cocci shaped?
2)Is a common inhabitant of what part of the body?
3)Is facultative with ______ being an end product of sugar fermentation.
4)They perform _____ when oxygen is present.
5)Is salt tolerant
6)Of the 28 species of Staphlycoccus, only what two species are known to infect humans?
1)Gram + and cocci
6)S. aureus and S. epidermidis
1)What are the clinical manifestations?
2)What is the mechanism of pathogenesis?
1)Wide range of pus-forming infections which cause elevated temperature, swelling, accumulation of pus
2)deadly cocktail of surface molecules and toxins
Staphlococcal food poisoning:
1)Produces the staphlococcal ____ toxin.
2)This toxin is heat stable and cause what symptom?
Toxic shock syndrome:
1)Is this a chronic or acute illness?
2)What are the symptoms?
1)Acute and potentially fatal illness
2)High fever, diffuse rash, peeling of the skin and low blood pressure
Associated with menstruation and the use of tampons
Toxic shock syndrome toxin (TTST):
1)What allows it to cross the mucosal surface?
2)It is located on a ____ that is flanked by mobile genetic elements.
3)What affect does it have on immune cells?
4)TTST and eterotoxin are _____.
3)Over stimulates immune system, massive release of cytokines
DNA viruses: Papillomaviruses
1)Is single or double stranded DNA genome?
2)Does it have an envelope?
3)Is it tissue specific?
4)What is the replication determined by?
5)HPV is present in 99.7% of what disease?
6)What is used to prevent this disease?
7)For the HPV lifecycle: it infects the ___ cells, grows and replicates in them?
2)NO--has an icosahedral capsid
3)Types are tissue specific: skin vs. mucosa
4)Replication determined by host cell differentiation state
7)Basal cells of epithelium
Can the HPV insert into the host genome? If yes, what effect does this have?
YES: this can change the regulation and cause cancer
1)Disease course: symptoms begin how many days after infection?
2)What are some of the symptoms?
3)It abates in about ___ days.
3)The pathogensis involves what?
1)2 to 3 days after infection
2)Headache, nasal discharge
Pathogenesis of Rhinoviruses:
1)It uses a protein capsid, is this a + or -, ssRNA virus?
2)Its a poly protein, which is small and simple.
What disease involved a (+) strand, ssRNA virus
The (+) ssRNA virus that the Rhinoviruses have use their own or host machinery to replicate?
Why can HPV cause cancer, yet Rhinovirus cannot?
Rhinoviruses has RNA so cannot integrate into DNA
What characteristics does Influenza A virus have?
-Envelope with HA and NA
-Has RNA-dependent, RNA-polymerase
1)Can influenza A virus replicate?
2)Is it a (-) or (+) strand?
3)Does it replicate in the cytoplasm or nucleus?
4)How is it transmitted?
5)What are the clinical manifestations?
6)What is a major complication of what infection?
8)Major antigenic drift & shift to cause mutations
5)Establishes a local upper respiratory tract infection---cause flu-like symptoms (fever, malaise, headache, body ache)
7)Can do a vaccine
Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme Disease)
1)Describe the life-cycle.
2)What is the first stage of infection in humans?
3)What is the second stage of infection?
4)What is the third stage?
5)Describe the pathogenesis.
6)What is used for treatment?
1)Larvae(summer)----dormany nymphs (fall & winter)---active nymps (spring)----go into host 2 and become adults
2)Occurs 7-14 days after transmission, bull's-eye rash, sometimes fever, disseminate through the skin, blood, and lymph. After 3-4 weeks rash subsides
3)Systemic infection days or weeks after initial rash (multiple rashes, infection of the nervous system or heart), fatigue, chills, fever, aches)
4)Joints (lyme arthritis), erosion of cartilage and or bone, heart
5)Unique mobility to drill into tissues, antigenic variation
Which pathogen is a spirochete?
Which pathogen has a unique mobility which can drill into tissues?
Does lyme pathogen have toxins?
What disease is a retroviruses (SS + strand enveloped)?
Oncovirinae, lentirivirne, spumavirinae are examples of what?
1)A major determinant is virus tropism for what cells?
2)Describe HIV replication.
1)What are some option?
1)CD4 T cells and will decrease over time
1)-Reverse transcriptase inhibitors-stop polymerase
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