AP world Sem. 1 vocab
Terms in this set (165)
The period of the Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans. It predates the Neolithic period.
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
People who hunt animals and gather wild plants, seeds, fruits, and nuts to survive
The switch from nomadic lifestyles to a settled agricultural lifestyle is this revolution.
A society with cities, a central government, job specialization, and social classes
A region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers that developed the first urban societies. In the Bronze Age this area included Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian empires, In the Iron Age, it was ruled by the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires.
Code of Hammurabi
A collection of 282 laws. One of the first (but not THE first) examples of written law in the ancient world.
One of the first monotheistic religions, particularly one with a wide following. It was central to the political and religious culture of ancient Persia.
first examples of written Chinese language
lead to calligraphy
A rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians
A city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
Belief in many gods
located on eastern Mediterranean coast; invented the alphabet which used sounds rather than symbols like cuneiform
Tigris and Euphrates
Early river civilization
a large river surrounded by fertile land in modern India/Pakistan.
Earliest known Chinese civilization. Rose in the Yellow River Valley, lasted from 1600 - 1100 BCE. Devised a decimal system, highly accurate calendar, and was powerful, yet isolated, believing themselves to be the center of the world.
This early empire has its home along Africa's longest river, with a detailed form of writing.
Mandate of Heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source. Life cycle if civilizations was doing bad it was the rulers fault so time to find a new one
the historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties
Chinese term reflecting the belief that China was the center of the earth
in China, a group of people who controlled much of the land and produced most of the candidates for civil service
Civil Service Exam
In Imperial China starting in the Han dynasty, it was an exam based on Confucian teachings that was used to select people for various government service jobs in the nationwide administrative bureaucracy.
a system in which promotion is based on individual ability or achievement
A Chinese philosophy that was devoted to strengthen and expand the state through increased agricultural work and military service.
A religion in China which emphasizes the removal from society and to become one with nature.
Chinese philosopher; taught about Daoism (following the way of nature) and yin/yang
Literally "wind-water." The Chinese art and science of placement and orientation of tombs, dwellings, buildings, and cities. Structures and objects are positioned in an effort to channel flows of sheng-chi ("life-breath") in favorable ways.
a Chinese system of slow meditative physical exercise designed for relaxation and balance and health
early Chinese emperor who emphasized Confucianism
A philosophy that adheres to the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. It shows the way to ensure a stable government and an orderly society in the present world and stresses a moral code of conduct.
respect shown by children for their parents and elders
people of the lowest status; did unskilled jobs; wore a green scarf to show their status; punished harsher for crimes;
A form of social organization in which males dominate females
right of inheritance belongs exclusively to the eldest son
The language of the Vedas, an early form of Sanskrit.
Many people and languages of Europe, Iran, and northern India share a common linguistic traits due to being part of this ancient group.
A mountain range along the northern border of India
seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons
Important for trade and boating
The most sacred river in India
(321-185 BCE) This was the first centralized empire of India whose founder was Chandragupta Maurya.
(320-550 CE) The decentralized empire that emerged after the Mauryan Empire, and whose founder is Chandra Gupta.
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
A single spiritual power that Hindus believe lives in everything
LOWEST LEVEL OF INDIAN SOCIETY; not considered a real part of the caste system; often given degrading jobs; their life was extremely difficult
(Hinduism) an ancient language of India (the language of the Vedas and of Hinduism)
A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
a ruler of the Mauryan Empire who converted to Buddhism
The state of englightenment for Buddhists.
The belief that actions in this life, whether good or bad, will decide your place in the next life.
In Hinduism and Buddhism, the process by which a soul is reborn continuously until it achieves perfect understanding
In Hindu belief, a person's religious and moral duties
Believing in the concept of life as a unified whole, without a separate "spiritual" realm.
a sacred text, especially one said to record the words of the Buddha
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Government in which citizens vote on laws and select officials directly.
A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting
Bread and Circuses
public entertainment that roman elites used to keep the plebeians happy and distracted from problems in the empire
the principles and ideals associated with classical Greek civilization
The language of the Romans
A water management system that originated in Perisa thousands of years ago. It provided water to people even in hilly, desert, hot, and arid areas (like Iran).
A dispersion of people from their homeland (particularly jews)
religion; located in japan and related to Buddhism; focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship
a blending of beliefs and practices from different religions into one faith
Islands contained in a rough triangle whose points lie in Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island
People of the Book
what Muslims called Christians and Jews which means that they too only believe in one god
member of the nomadic desert peoples of North Africa and Southwest Asia
The most sacred temple of Islam, located at Mecca
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
The term for all Muslims as a community.
successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims
Islamic empire ruled by those believed to be the successors to the Prophet Muhammad.
Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads as caliphs within Islam; came to power in 750 C.E.
A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
Capital of Abbasid dynasty located in Iraq near ancient Persian capital of Ctesiphon
an Arabic term that means the "house of Islam" and that refers to lands under Islamic rule
The basic tenets of Islam: Allah is the only god and Muhammad is his prophet; pray to Allah five times a day facing Mecca; fast during the month of Ramadan; pay alms for the relief of the weak and the poor; take a hajj to Mecca
Pilgrimage to Mecca
A Muslim place of worship
A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.
a follower of the religion of Islam
Month of fasting
sailboat using wind-catching, triangular sails
mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, & simple life
the separate part of a Muslim household reserved for wives, concubines, and female servants.
a woman who lives with a man but has lower status than his wife or wives (mistress)
A major African language family. Collective name of a large group of sub-Saharan African languages and of the peoples speaking these languages. Famous for migrations throughout central and southern Africa.
An important way of transportation on the Sand and Silk roads for thousands of years
Mali trading city that became a center of wealth and learning
A Bantu language with arabic words, spoken along the east african coast
Capital of the Byzantine Empire
A branch of Christianity based in Rome. The original Christian church.
this Christian religion broke away from the Roman church when it would not accept the authority of the Pope as the head of the church
riots during Justinian's time where he lured them all to the Colosseum and killed them
The body of Roman law collected by order of the Byzantine emperor, Justinian around A.D. 534.
Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.
Eastern half of the Roman Empire that survived the fall of the Western half.
the official split between the Roman Catholic and Byzantine churches that occurred in 1054
first civilization in russia that was greatly influenced by the byzantine
Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavia
a ship with oars and a sail used by the Vikings
Another name for the Middle Ages.
Also known as the medieval period, the time between the collapse of the Roman Empire in the fifth century AD and the beginning of the Renaissance in the fourteenth century.
economic system of Middle Ages Europe that was based on agriculture (farming)
(n.) a person under the protection of a feudal lord to whom he or she owes allegiance; a subordinate or dependent; a servant; (adj.) subservient
A person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
Relating to or resembling a monastery (where monks or nuns live), esp. by being quiet, secluded, contemplative, strict, and/or lacking luxuries
a luxurious handmade book with painted illustrations and decorations
A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.
A rotational system for agriculture in which one field grows grain, one grows legumes, and one lies fallow. It gradually replaced two-field system in medieval Europe.
leather collar that rests around horses shoulders; allowed to carry more weight
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.
A medieval organization of crafts workers or trades people.
Code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages
Characterized by pointed arches, high ceilings, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows
a buttress slanting from a separate pier, typically forming an arch with the wall it supports.
A grotesque carved human or animal figure, especially one used as a rainspout carrying water clear of a wall
little ice age
A century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable.
A deadly plague that swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351
The first civilization to appear in Mexico.
Powerful postclassic empire in central Mexico (900-1168 C.E.). It influenced much of Mesoamerica. Aztecs claimed ties to this earlier civilization. (p. 305)
first major metropolis in Mesoamerica, collapsed around 800 CE. It is most remembered for the gigantic "pyramid of the sun".
They settled in the Yucatan Peninsula, not far from the Olmecs. A very cultural and intellectual people who used astronomy to create and very accurate calendar.
(1200-1521) 1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields.
Capital of the Aztec Empire
Andean labor system based on shared obligations to help kinsmen and work on behalf of the ruler and religious organizations.
South American civilization which rose to power following the collapse of the Chavin in the Andes
Largest and most powerful Andean empire. Controlled the Pacific coast of South America from Ecuador to Chile from its capital of Cuzco.
agricultural techniques of south america; combines raised beds with irrigation channels to prevent erosion
Inca practice of ruler descent; all titles and political power went to successor, but wealth and land remained in hands of male descendants for support of dead Inca's mummy.
An arrangement of knotted strings on a cord, used by the Inca to record numerical information.
A canal linking northern and southern China
Money paid by one country to another in return for protection
The Confucian response to Buddhism by taking Confucian and Buddhist beliefs and combining them into this. However, it is still very much Confucian in belief.
Practice in Chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the household.
Chinese ships, particularly from the 1400s, are often called these. It was a sturdy Chinese ship design and the largest of its kind were treasures ships that could carry a thousand tons of cargo.
Enabled merchants to deposit good or cash at one location and draw the equivalent in cash or merchandise elsewhere in China.
Quick-maturing rice that can allow two harvests in one growing season. Originally introduced into Champa from India, it was later sent to China as a tribute gift by the Champa state (as part of the tributary system.)
blocks of metal or wood, each bearing a single character, that can be arranged to make up a page for printing
The formula, brought to China in the 400s or 500s, was first used to make fumigators to keep away insect pests and evil spirits. In later centuries it was used to make explosives and grenades and to propel cannonballs, shot, and bullets.
extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions
Tale of Genji
written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any languange; relates life history of prominent and amorous son of the Japanese emperor's son; evidence for mannered style of the Japanese society.
Japan's large landowners
highly trained Japanese warriors
"the way of the warrior"
Supreme military commander
Leaders of one of the frequent peasant rebellions in Vietnam against Chinese rule; revolt broke out in 39 c.e.; demonstrates importance of Vietnamese women in indigenous society.
Four regional Mongol kingdoms that arose following the death of Chinggis Khan.
1279-1368 Mongol rule
Turkish group ruled by the Ottoman dynasty; formed an empire that lasted from about 1300 to 1922. The group that proved to be the greatest threat to the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century.
A major dynasty that ruled China from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. It was marked by a great expansion of Chinese commerce into East Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia
Chinese admiral during the Ming Dynasty, he led great voyages that spread China's fame throughout Asia
is the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture
"rebirth"; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome