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final multiple choice
Terms in this set (99)
Organisms that derive both their energy and carbon from the organic compounds are?
Which one of the following is an example of potential energy?
In an endergonic reaction, which side of the equation has more free energy?
Overall, this _______ based on the changes in free energy that takes place as A is converted to E.
The reaction that converts C to D is ________
The potential energy in a molecule of ATP is held in the:
repulsion of the phosphate groups from each other
Which of the following transformations would yield products with less entropy than the starting material?
conversion of monosaccharides from starch
True or false: an uncatalyzed reaction has a higher delta G then the same reaction when catalyzed by an enzyme
Glycolysis, the breakdown of a glucose molecule to two molecules of pyruvate, is an example of a reaction that is?
If end product G inhibits enzyme 5, which of the following would you expect to observe as the amount of G increases in the cell?
an increase in production of e
In a reaction, enzymes change the
When fats are used as an energy source, the fatty acids are broken down to acetyl-CoA. That means that fats bypass the reaction of __________ and enter the respiratory pathway at _______
glycolysis, citric acid cycle
In step 6 of the citric acid cycle, succinate + FAD goes to fumarate + FADH2. Which statement concerning this reaction is true?
fumarate is mor oxidized than succinate
Glycolysis is a series of chemical reactions (endergonic and exergonic) by which the sell can obtain ATP. NAD+ plays a crucial role in the reactions of glycolysis by:
accepting electrons from glucose with the result that glucose is partially oxidized to pyruvate
Phosphorylating glucose during phase 1 of glycolysis:
destabilizes the glucose molecule so that it can be broken down in phase II
During pyruvate oxidation, pyruvate is broken down into CO2 and acetyl group. The CO2 is
less energetic to acetyl group
The citric acid cycle is a cycle because the starting molecule _________ is regenerated at the end
A single molecule of glucose requires _____ "turns" thought the CAC for its chemical energy to be completely harvested.
Following the CAC but before the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, most of the energy from the original glucose is found in __________
The pH in the intermembrane space of the mitochondria should be __________ compared to the matrix due to __________
lower; higher concentration of H+ in inter membrane space
When an electron is transferred from NADH to CoQ, NADH is __________ and CoQ is ___________.
Oligomycin is an antibiotic that binds ATP synthase, blocking the flow of protons through the enzyme's proton channel. In addition to preventing synthesis of ATP, what additional effect might you expect in response to the presence of oligomycin?
lower pH in inter membrane space
In lactic acid fermentation what molecule is reduced by NADH (returning NADH to NAD+)
During photosynthesis ___________ is reduced to __________
Leaves absorb the least amount of light in the _________ range of visible spectrum
Photorespiration results in
the consumption of ATP and loss of CO2
The pH in the stroma of the chloroplast should be __________ compared to the thylakoids due to the ________________
higher; higher concentration of H+ ions in the thylakoid
The hydrogen ion gradient across the thylakoid membrane is required to ___________
provide energy for reaction ADP + Pi to ATP
What is the initial carbon input in the Calvin cycle?
Which products of the calvin cycle is/are exported from the chloroplast for use by the plant cell?
Which of the following are products of the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis that are required by reactions in the calvin cycle?
ATP to NADPH
Suppose a mutation caused photosystem I to function only at 10% of its normal capacity. Which of the following would you predict to happen?
NADP+ reductase activity would decrease
In the chloroplast, cytochrome b6f, is an important complex in the photosynthetic electron transport chain because it accepts electrons from PS II and donates them to PS I. Another vital function of the cytochrome b6f is that during its reducing-oxidation cycle it pumps _______ from the ___________.
hydrogen ions: stronger in thylakoid
Cyclic electron transport enhances ATP production because
electrons pass through cytochrome b6f complex twice
Normally X are present in the thylakoid membrane and are associated with PS II. If a mutation occurred, that reduced the amount of X in the thylakoid, which of the following would you expect to happen?
the levels of harmful reactive oxygen species in cell would increase
Which one is a primary component of both living organisms and the earth's crust?
Which of the following correctly reflects the process of science?
observation, question, hypothesis, experiment, support or refute hypothesis
An explanation supported by a large body of observation and experimentation is referred to as
Which of the following correctly pairs the particles of an atoms with their physical properties?
Sometimes an atom gains or loses particles. The loss of which of the following would result in a change in overall electrical charge?
proton and electron
The ability of atoms to attract electrons is referred to as
In an atom that is NOT an ion, which of the following must be true
number of electrons = number of protons
Steroids are considered to be lipids because the ______________.
are not soluble in water
Non-virulent bacteria can be prevented from being transformed into virulent bacteria if the debris from the heat killed virulent bacteria is first treat with?
In DNA the molecules, complementary base pairs always include one purine nucleotide and one pyrimidine nucleotide. In the DNA of certain bacterial cells, 16% of the nucleotides are adenine. What are % of all the others?
16% thymine, 34% guanine, 34% cytosine
Alternative splicing allows for
different polypeptides to be made from a single gene.
Which of the following correctly indicates the complementary base pairing of adenine in DNA and RNA?
adenine with thymine in DNA uracil with RNA
In eukaryotes, newly synthesized proteins encoded in genes in the nucleus are found in ____________ and DNA are observed in ________________.
A template DNA stand contains 30% A, 20% T, 27% G, and 23% C. the RNA transcript contains
30%% U, 20% A, 27% C, 23% G
If you made a change in the promoter sequence in the DNA that inactivates the promoter, what would happen at the RNA level?
the RNA polymerase would not be able to recognize and bind the DNA, so no RNA would be made
Which of the following correctly lists the components necessary for prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription?
RNA polymerase, general transcription factors, DNA and RNA nucleotides
An RNA transcript is synthesized in which direction?
5' to 3'
In prokaryotes newly, synthesized proteins are found in ___________ and DNA are observed in _____________.
In the spiral staircase analogy of DNA structure, each railing represents a _________and each step represents ____________.
sugar phosphate backbone; pair of bases
Chromatin is composed of
histones and DNA
Which of the following is not a component of an amino acid?
The unfolding of a protein by heat or chemical treatment is referred to as what?
Secondary structures are stabilized by which type of interaction?
In eukaryotes, where do general transcription initiation factors bind?
near the start codon
When the peptide bond is created between AA 1 and AA
the carboxyl group of amino acid 1 is joined to amino group of amino acid 2
Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules?
A group of 3 adjacent nucleotides in mRNA is called a
When a charged tRNA is about to bind to a the vacant A sit of a ribosome, where is the growing polypeptide?
in the P site
In eukaryotes the AUG codon that starts translation is
the AUG nearest 5' cap on mRNA
A cell with a predominance of free ribosomes is most likely ___________.
primarily producing proteins in cytosol
Cyanide binds with at least one molecule involved in producing ATP. If a cell is exposed to cyanide, most of the cyanide will be found within the ______________.
A growing strand of DNA/RNA grows toward the _________ end and has a __________ functional group associated.
Which one of the following would be found in the cells of a blade of grass but not in the cells of an insect feeding on that grass?
Which of the following accurately describes the path travelled by a new protein as it is synthesized and released from the cell?
nuclear envelope, ER, transport vesicle, Golgi apparatus, plasma membrane, external environment
Some diseases as tay-sachs, are caused by the breakdown of cellular components, which of the following organelles is defective?
Defects in which of the following structures are responsible for a condition called exercise intolerance where individuals suffer extreme fatigue from minimal exertion?
If a mutation rendered the signal recognition particle nonfunctional, what would be the most obvious effect on the cell?
all proteins normally secreted by the cell would remain partially formed and attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
which type of cell signaling does not rely on the diffusion of chemical signaling molecule?
a chemical that binds to a cell and causes its activity to change is an example of which of the following
what determines the specificity of a receptor protein?
the ligand binding site
An increased heart rate caused by the release of adrenaline from the adrenal glands is an example of _______________________________.
a mutation on the cytoplasmic side of the transmembrane GPCR would most likely affect
activation of g protein
How would the signal of a G protein-coupled receptor, without ligand, be affected if you made a g protein that converted GDP to GTP units own without needed to be activated
the g protein would be active and signaling without ligand
signal amplification relies on
a sequential increase in the different components of the signal transductions pathway
the process of cell division in a prokaryotic cell is called
in which step of mitosis do chromosomes lie up at an imaginary line through the middle
in which phase of the cell cycle is DNA replicated
a homologous chromosome pair is best described as two chromosomes that have
the same genes in the same order but possibly different alleles
sister chromatids are best described as two DNA molecules that have
virtually identical sequences of nucleotides
when in the cell cycle would you find sister chromatid
S and G2
how many copies of each gene are present in skin cells at g1?
how many copies of each gene in g2?
the two strands in a molecule of DNA are
p53 a tumor supressor gene that can delay a cells progression through the cell cycle. what problem in cell division does it monitor
damage to DNA
a new nucleotide can only be added to the _________ end of a growing DNA strand. DNA therefore always grown in the _________ direction
3' to 5', 3'
the leading strand is the daughter strand that has its ____ end pointed toward the replication fork and is therefore synthesized __________
when we say that DNA replication is semiconservative we mean that
when DNA is replicated each new double helix contains one parental strand and one newly synthesized daughter strand
the enzyme that catalyzes the addition of new nucleotides to a growing DNA strand is
Okazaki fragments are found on the
which of the following statements applies to framshift mutations
they change the amino acid sequence downstream from the mutant site
insertions and deletions of single nucleotides
cause frameshift mutations
a point mutation that causes no change in Amino acid sequence of a protein is called a
synonymous, silent mutation
the enzyme _________ repairs 99% of mismatches bases immediately during replication
Chromosomes in which the normal order of a block of genes is reversed contain a(n):
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