Intro to American Politics Exam 2 (Ramona Mcneal)
Terms in this set (71)
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
States cannot deny any person the right to vote because of race.
Gave women the right to vote
Form of judicial review that courts use to determine constitutionality of certain laws
intermediate standard of review
standard of review used by the Court to evaluate laws that make a quasi-suspect classification
Minimum rationality test
standard of review used by the Court to evaluate laws that make a non suspect classification
A requirement that citizens pay a tax in order to register to vote
Method used to deny African-Americans the vote in the South that tested a person's ability to read and write
a clause exempting certain classes of people or things from the requirements of a piece of legislation affecting their previous rights, privileges, or practices.
De jure discrimination
Racial segregation that is a direct result of law or official policy
De facto discrimination
discrimination that is the result not of law but rather of tradition and habit
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka
1954- court decision that declared state laws segregating schools to be unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
a reallocation of congressional seats among the states every ten years, following the census
redistricting to benefit a particular group
a vote to end a Senate filibuster; requires 3/5ths majority, or sixty votes
a practice of unlimited debate in the Senate in order to prevent or delay a vote on a bill
temporary committees formed to reconcile differences in House and Senate versions of a bill
permanent committees responsible for legislation in particular policy areas
leader of the senate
Majority Leader: Mitch McConnell
presides over the Senate
Vice President: Mike Pence
Leader of the House of Representatives
Speaker of the House: Nancy Pelosi
minimum requirements for being a Senator
1. must be at least 30 years old
2. must have been a citizen for the last 9 years
3. they must be living in the state they seek to represent at the time of their election
minimum requirement for being in the House of Representatives
1. must be at least 25 years old
2. a citizen of the US for at least 7 years prior to being elected
3. a resident of the state he/she is chosen to represent
4 forms of representation that members of Congress engage in
policy representation, allocative representation, symbolic representation, casework
congressional work to advance the issues and ideological preferences of constituents
congressional work to secure projects, services, and funds for the represented district
efforts of members of Congress to stand for American ideals or to identify with common constituency values
legislative work on behalf of individual constituents to solve their problems with government agencies and programs
What 5 actions were taken by George Washington that increased the power of the presidency?
1. He lobbied congress (he wanted certain bills passed so he would go lobby to congress)
2. Confidentiality with his advisors (what the president talks to his advisors is no one else's business)
3. He left after 2 terms (he knew people were afraid of a tyrant so he left after 2 terms)
4. consent but not advice (I have to take your consent but I do not have to take your advice)
5. Denied congress of formal role in diplomatic relations with other countries (our president is our chief ambassador, it is up to the President)
Role of Solicitor General
decides which cases the government should ask the supreme court to retire and what position the US should take on those cases
Who was the first modern president?
presidential arrangements with other countries that create foreign policy without the need for Senate approval
clarification of congressional policy issued by the president and having full force of law
head of state
the apolitical, unifying roles of the president as symbolic representative of the whole country
head of government
the political role of the president as leader of a political party and chief arbiter of who get what resources
Which president created the role of party leader for the president?
Limits the president to two terms.
provides the procedures for replacing the president or vice president in the event of death, removal, resignation, or incapacitation
Which president created the role of "voice of the people" for the president?
a law that gives citizens access to the government's files on them
Freedom of Information Act
the 1966 law that allows citizens to obtain copies of most public records
legislation opening the process of bureaucratic policy making to the public
the 1883 civil service reform that required the hiring and promoting of civil servants to be based on merit, not patronage
a system in which a successful candidate rewards friends, contributors, and party loyalists, for their support with jobs, contracts, and favors
the 19th century practice of firing government workers of a defeated party and replacing them with loyalists of the victorious party
the phenomenon of a clientele group, congressional committee, and bureaucratic agency cooperating to make mutually beneficial policy
complex systems of relationships among groups that influence policy, including elected leaders, interest groups, specialists, consultants, and research institutes
one of the major subdivisions of the federal government, represented in the president's cabinet
government organizations independent of the departments but with a narrower policy focus
independent regulatory boards and commissions
government organizations that regulate carious businesses, industries, or economic sectors
companies created by Congress to provide a good or service that private enterprise cannot or will not profitably provide
Which were the first 3 departments under George Washington?
defense, state, treasury
laws prohibiting behavior the government has determined to be harmful to society; violation of a criminal law is called a crime
laws regulating interactions between individuals; violation of a civil law is called a tort
a wrongful act or an infringement of a right (other than under contract) leading to civil legal liability
the power of the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutionality of laws
law established by the bureaucracy on behalf of congress
laws whose content or substance, defines what we can or cannot do
laws that establish how laws are applied and enforced how legal proceedings take place
What are the basic jobs of trial courts?
hear both criminal and civil cases, juries responsible for verdict
What are the basic jobs of intermediate courts of appeal?
solely appellate jurisdiction, no new evidence or witnesses, panel of 3 judges makes ruling by if it was fair or not
how many U.S. District courts are there?
How many U.S. courts of Appeal are there?
What is the significance of Amicus curiae briefs?
"Friend of the court", documents filed by interested parties to encourage the Court to grant or deny certiorari or to urge it to decide a case in a particular way
Who defined the ideal bureaucracy?
4 characteristics of an ideal bureaucracy
hierarchy, specialization, explicit rules, merit
According to the Constitution, how often should district lines be redrawn for the House of Representatives?
every 10 years
Who confirms presidential appointments?
what are the Constitutional requirements to be a federal judge?
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