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Sports med semester 1 final
Terms in this set (174)
determines wether someone has an allergy, and if so, how to treat it.
an immune response, which may include red, swollen tissue or a runny nose, to a substance that normally should be tolerated
American Red Cross
a national organization that certifies people in first aid and CPR. The American Red Cross also sponsors services such as disaster relief for communities throughout the world.
a credential awarded by the BOC after a person has met the AT education requirements and passed the BOC national examination.
an allied medical profession that is dedicated to maintaining and improving the health and well being of the physical active population and preventing athletics - related injuries and illnesses.
the study of the movement of living things
board of certification (BOC)
The national organization that examines and certifies athletic trainers so they can practice as ATs.
a physician with specialized knowledge of the cardiovascular system.
an acknowledgement by an organization or certification board stating that a person possesses specific skills and competencies.
Certified Athletic Training (AT)
a person who is concerned with the health and well being of the physically active and athletic population. The AT's credentials are ATC
medical personnel who treats mainly musculoskeletal disorders and restores normal function by manipulating bones, specifically at the spinal column.
a medical specialist who treats primarily teeth and gums
a specialist concerned with the dietary needs of people.
Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)
someone who is certified to treat and transport people who are ill or injured.
the person responsible for assigning and fitting appropriate playing equipment to athletes.
a person who measures, modifies, and adapts a work environment to prevent injuries.
a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disease of the female reproductive system
the study of human movement
a state act that specifies who is allowed to practice athletic training and what duties they are allowed to perform.
a person who administers massage for therapeutic purposes.
National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA)
the professional association that recognizes AT's as its primary members and establishes codes of professional conduct.
National Safety Council
an organization that certifies people in first aid and CPR procedures.
a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disease of the nervous system.
the process that use food to fulfill the metabolic needs of the body.
a physician who deals primarily with conditions and injuries of musculoskeletal system.
a specialist in the medical treatment of children
the science of drugs and their effects on the body
an allied medical professional who specializes in rehabilitation of orthopedic and nonorthopedic conditions
An allied medical professional works directly under the supervision of a physician and conducts examinations, orders diagnostic tests, writes prescriptions, and diagnoses and treats injuries and illnesses.
a science that deals with energy and matter
a specialist in foot disorders
primary care physician
The athlete's primary doctor. She must be notified after an athlete is injured.
getting the athlete back into shape for athletic participation
the step of concentrating state authorities before acting in the capacity of an AT. It is required by law in some states
the process or means of getting a person back to his normal level of function following an injury or illnesses.
a licensed nurse who provides services to a school or school district
a broad term that refers to the care of the physically active who have suffered an athletics- related injury or illness
a professional who works with athletes who may need help with goal setting, anxiety, frustration, self - esteem, family issues, and more.
strength and conditioning coach
a person who works with athletes to ensure that each is in shape to meet the demands of athletic competition
a student who volunteers to observe (and assist when deemed appropriate) a certified AT in order to learn more about the profession
A physician who deals with problems of the urinary tract such as painful urination
electromagnetic waves used to make a picture to aid in diagnosing injuries to bones.
members of central sports team
2.) parents/ guardians
5.) team physician
members of the peripheral team
1.) primary care physician
8.) a dentist
9.) physical therapist
10.) physician assistant
12.) student assistant
14.) school nurse
15.) registered dietitian
16.) emergency medical technician (EMT)
17.) massage therapist
18.) sports psychologist
19.)strength and conditioning coach
20.) equipment manager
12 National Athletic Training Education Competencies
1.) risk management and injury prevention
2.) pathology of injury and illnesses
3.) orthopedic clinical examination and diagnosis
4.) medical conditions and disabilities
5.) acute care of injuries and illnesses
6.) therapeutic modalities
7.) conditioning and rehabilitation exercise
9.) psychosocial intervention and referral
10.) nutritional aspects of injuries and illnesses
11.) Health care administration
12.) professional development and responsibility
risk management and injury prevention
refers to the principles and strategies for minimizing the risk of injury as well as the risk of legal liability
pathology of injury and illnesses
refers to the cause of an injury or illness and the functional changes that occur in the body as a result.
orthopedic clinical examination and diagnosis
refers to understanding and identifying an athlete's musculoskeletal injury and determining his readiness to participate in physical activity. This content area also involves identifying athletic injuries and assessing an athlete's progress during the rehabilitation of an athletic injury.
medical conditions and disabilities
include disease processes and the disabilities that result from athletic injuries. They also include disabilities that may exist as preexisting conditions in active people. These issues must be understood before they can be managed.
acute care of injuries and illnesses
involves systematically managing acute injury and illness in an emergency situation.
refers to methods of facilitating the healing process. AT must understand the physics behind energy absorption, dissipation, and transmission as energy is applied to the body in the various modalities.
conditioning and rehabilitation exercise
refers to preparing an athlete for the demands of a sport or activity by helping her to attain an appropriate level of fitness and function.
refers to the science of drugs and drug interactions in the body.
psychosocial intervention and referral
involves understanding both the psychological and sociological aspects of an injury or illness and knowing how to intervene and refer an athlete for appropriate care.
nutritional aspects of injuries and illnesses
include the way that food fulfills the metabolic needs of the body.
Health care administration
refers to the management aspects of athletic training and athletics.
professional development and responsibility
refers to an ATs obligation to continually learn and to conduct himself in a professional manner.
what are the opportunities for employment for AT's?
a.) organized athletics
i. high school environments
ii.) universities and college
iii.) professional and semi professional teams
iv.) youth sports leagues
b.) clinical and hospital settings
i.)sports medicine centers
iii.) physician owned clinics
c.) industrial and occupational settings
i.) health and fitness centers
ii.) industrial and manufacturing sites
domains of athletic training
1.) injury prevention
2.) clinical evaluation and diagnosis
3.) Immediate care of athletic injuries
4.) treatment, rehabilitation, and reconditioning
5.) organization and administration
6.) professional development and responsibility
the prevention of athletic injuries includes pre-participation physical exams, proper strength and conditioning programs; proper equipment and equipment fitting: taping, bandaging, and bracing: and good nutrition
clinical evaluation and diagnosis
AT must be able to recognize the type of injury and its severity so that she will know how to treat it or when to refer that athlete to a physician
immediate care of athletic injuries
When an athlete is injure the AT must be ready to respond. Must be first aid and CPR certified through organizations like the American Red Cross or National Safety council
treatment, rehabilitation, and reconditioning
After initial treatment, the AT directs the athlete through exercises and treatments to help her return to normal function. This is called rehabilitation Reconditioning is getting the athlete back into physical shape for athletic participation.
organization and administration
ATs must keep their facilities organized and they must be able to purchase orders, schedule staff, and must have the administrative skills necessary for preparing work.
professional development and responsibility
AT must continue their education to remain current with the latest developments in health care. Must conduct themselves professionally and with integrity.
code of ethics
a series of behaviors and beliefs that articulate how professionals are to act.
Assumption of risk
when an athlete fully understands that she may be injured by participating in a sport
duty of care
having a responsibility to care for an injured person
a step beyond negligence whereby a person fails to even minimal care when needed.
permission by parents, after being informed of the possible dangers of participation in athletic activities, for medical staff to treat their child if he is injured.
a legal wrong characterized by the failure to act as a reasonably prudent person would act in a similar situation
A framework for thinking about being a professional: Promote a professional image. Remember your vision. Engage in learning. Maximize your strengths. Innovate and create. Enlist the help of others. Reflect on your actions.
a close connection between the act of a certified AT and resulting injury to an athlete.
standards of professional practice
the way an AT is expected to act while doing her job
what are a few ways to avoid legal problems ?
- have a written contract
- use equipment that meets established safety standards
- require pre participation physical examination
- have all athletes and their parents/ guardians sign an assumption of risk form
- maintain car and first aid certification
- have a crisis plan
-document all injuries and procedures
- check for hazards
- stay educated
areas of an athletic training facility
1.) private exam room - exam injuries
2.) treatment area - treat injuries
3.) game and practice prep area - area to wrap up before games/ practice
4.) wound care and first aid area - medical station to treat wounds
5.) hydrotherapy area - recovery tubs
6.) rehab and reconditioning area- gym equipment
7.) AT office or record keeping area- storage
pre-participation exam a.k.a physicals
- seen in storage and brought out during examinations
reports and charts
AT's should document any accident of which they are aware of, treatment any athlete receives and the rehabilitation process that an athlete makes.
Any treatment an athlete receives must be documented
AT must document the progress if injured athlete and what treatment the athlete received and how they responded to it
NATA standards of professional practice
- Principle 1 : members shall respect the rights, welfare, and dignity of all
- Principle 2: members shall comply with the laws and regulations governing the practice of athletic training
- Principle 3: members shall maintain and promote high standards in their provision of services.
- Principle 4: members shall not engage in conduct that could be construed as a conflict of interest or that reflects negatively on the profession
BOC standards of professional practice
1.)direction- a physician directs the services provided by an AT
2.)prevention - AT must use sound preventive measures to protect each patient
3.)immediate care -used in all athletic training settings
4.)clinical evaluation and diagnosis - AT must use appropriate assessment procedures and clinical reasoning and decision making to diagnose a patient
5.)treatment, rehabilitation and reconditioning - At must use proper goal setting, intervention strategies, and assessment measures for the effective treatment of patients
6.)program discontinuation -AT will collaborate with a physician to determine when a patient's treatment program can be discontinued.
7.)organization and administration - any services rendered to a patient is appropriately documented and becomes part of the patients permanent medical record, members should maintain and promote high standards in the provision of services
P: promote a professional image
R :remember your vision
E :engage in learning
M: maximize your strengths
I :innovate and create
E: enlist the help of others
movement away from the midline of the body
movement toward the midline of the body
a joint of cartilage that links bones that don't move much, such as where the ribs join the sternum.
a standing posture with the arms at the sides and palms facing forward
pertaining to the front of the body
the bones of the extremities (shoulders, arms, hands, legs, feet, and pelvis)
The bones of the body that compose the spine, chest, and head.
ball- and - socket joint
a joint in which a rounded bone fits into a cuplike socket and swivels.
a point that is lower than another; synonymous with inferior.
toward the head; synonymous with superior.
The movement of a limb in a circular pattern. Occurs when a ball- and - socket joint (shoulder and hip) encompasses several directions with one motion.
away from the body's surface
a layer that helps hold the skin to underlying bone and muscle tissue
when a bony segment is moved in an inferior direction.
a freely movable joint, such as the shoulder. This kind of joint has a joint capsule, a synovial membrane, cartilage, and ligaments
away from the attachment of a limb.
the posterior aspect (back) of a structure
when a bony segment is moved in a superior direction
the most superficial layer of skin
(growth plate) the area of the bone where growth occurs.
a movement of that turns the sole of the foot outward, away from the midline of the body
a straightening movement around a joint to restore it to anatomical position. The anatomical position of the knee, for example, is straight.
a bending movement around a joint in a limb away from its straightened position
the plane that separates the body into front and back halves
the distance around a body part
an articulation whereby the joint is able to move primarily in flexion and extension. An example of a hinge -joint is the knee or elbow.
a thin layer of cartilage that covers the ends of a bone where it articulates with another bone.
one point, or structure, being lower than another
a movement that turns the sole of the foot inward toward the midline of the body
a sac or sleevelike structure that covers a joint. The capsule has a synovial membrane containing synovial fluid to ease joint movement.
away from the midline of the body
tissue in the body that connect bone to bone.
toward the midline of the body
a joint that has a large range of movement because it can move in a variety of planes.
occurs when you move your thumb across your hand to meet your smallest finger, or fifth digit.
the back of the body
a movement that turns the palm of the hand down as if it were emptying a bowl of soup.
movement of the scapulas away from one another; the opposite of retraction.
toward the attachment of the limb to the trunk
means simply returning your thumb and fifth digit to their starting position
when the scapulas are moved, or pulled, together
the spinning or turning movement of a bony segment around an axis
a plane that divides the body into left and right halves.
close to the body's surface
one point, or structure, being higher than another.
a movement that turns the palm of the hand up as if it were holding a bowl of soup.
a type of joint in which bones are held together by tough connective tissue, making the joint essentially immovable.
a tissue that completely surrounds diarthrodial joints and secretes a slippery fluid.
tissues in the body that connect a muscle to a bone
the plane that divides the body into top and bottom halves
the anterior aspect of a structure
the coming together of of two bones to form a joint.
inflammation of a bursa sac often characterized by swelling.
a mass of connective tissue that forms at the site of a fracture and is converted into bone or a thickening of skin in response to repeated stress.
an injury that disrupts the alignment of bones at a joint, resulting in obvious deformity.
the amount of force required to cause a fracture
inflammation of the facial tissue
connective tissue cells that begin building fibers across an area of injury. They form the scar and take about six weeks to accomplish their task
a break in a bone
infection - fighting white blood cells that go to the site of an injury
a chronic inflammation of the muscle tissue
a fracture that does not heal, leaving two pieces of bone where there was one before.
specialized white blood cells that clear dead cells from the site of an injury
blood cells that carry blood - clotting materials
an injury to a ligament, inability to weight bear and move joint due to pain laxity of joint
an injury that occurs to a muscle or tendon, inability to move the body part
inflammation of the synovial lining of diarthrodial joints
Different planes of the body:
- frontal : the plane that separates the body into front and back halves
- sagittal: a plane that divides the body into left and right halves
-transverse: the plane that divides the body into top and bottom halves
layers of the skin
- epidermis : most superficial layer and its thin and connects to the dermis
- dermis: layer below epidermis, thicker
- hypodermis: helps hold the skin to underlying bone and muscle tissue.
the differences between the axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton
- axial skeletons: bones of the spine, thorax, and skull
- appendicular skeletons: bones of the extremities
Primary function of bones
- protect vital organs and structures from trauma
-are the stiff structures that are acted on by muscles to create movement
-produce blood cells and store minerals such as calcium and phosphorus
2 examples of long bones
- at the end of every long bone is a growth plate
2 examples of an irregular bone
2 examples of flat bones
Difference between tendons and ligaments
Tendons attach muscle to bone and transmit the force that a muscle exerts , ligaments connect bones and help to form joints
What is the purpose of cartilage?
functions to join structures, absorb shock, and permit smooth bone movement
what is the purpose of muscles ?
muscles allow the body to accelerate, decelerate, stop movement, and maintain normal postural alignment and produce heat
Different types of joints in the body
Also known as synovial joints. They have fantastic mobility and consist of a joint capsule, synovial membrane, hyaline cartilage. Divided into several types including hinge joints (elbow and knee) and multiracial joints (hip and shoulder).
- have cartilage attaching two bones together
- also known as cartilaginous joints.
- ex: where the ribs join the sternum
- also called fibrous joints
- held together by connective tissue and the joints are basically immovable
- joins the the bones of the skull and the tibia and fibula in the lower leg.
bone and muscle diagrams
- page 34 and 36
soft tissue injuries are often called what?
wounds, sprains, and strains
what is the difference between sprains and strains ?
sprains are injuries to ligaments and a strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon
Sprain/ strain categories
- 1st degree: tissue is over - stretched and there is no loss of motion
- 2nd degree: tissue is partially torn, some swelling and loss of motion
- 3rd degree: completely or nearly ruptured tissue and cannot function well at all
3 stages of healing ( soft - tissue ) :
-Stage 1: Acute Inflammatory: Cells within the area die from being ripped apart and cut off from their food and oxygen supply. An increase in blood flow brings cells and chemical to the area to begin healing. Lasts about 2 day from the date of initial injury
- Stage 2: Repair: injured area has been flooded with blood, cells and chemicals to rebuild the area.
Fibroblasts are fiber building cells and start laying down fibers over the injured area, this forms a scar.
Takes 6 weeks to up to 3 months depending on the extent of the injury
- Stage 3: Remodeling: Takes up to a year to accomplish. Building tissue strength in the tendons, ligaments, and muscles to be able to withstand the stress applied to the body during activity.
stages of bone fracture healing
- stage 1: acute
- stage 2: repair
- stage 3: remodeling
Stage 1 : acute
-Bleeding occurs when a bone is broken
-Osteoclasts begin to eat the debris or
reabsorb it into the body
-Osteoblasts begin to add new layers to the
outside of the bone.
-This process lasts for about 4 days
stage 2: repair
-Osteoclasts and osteoblasts continue to regenerate the
-Fibrous callus forms and acts as a bony splint
-This callus extends internally and externally to hold the bone ends together
-Transforms into a sleeve of hard callus
-Callus transformation into bone starts around the 3week mark after injury.
-6 weeks in a cast or splint and a fracture has healed enough to allow an athlete to return to practice and competition.
Stage 3: remodeling
Takes several years to complete.
Callus is reabsorbed and replaced with a fibrous cord of bone that forms around the fracture site.
If the bone never heals this is known as a nonunion
If a nonunion fracture occurs in a weight bearing bone the athlete will not be able to walk.
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