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gol 131 final review
Terms in this set (114)
list the layers of the earth by composition (C-M-C)
list the layers of the earth by solidity ( L-A-M-C)
is the continental or oceanic crust older
what type of rock is continental crust made of
what type of rock is oceanic crust made of
what is the average density and thickness for continental, oceanic, mantle and core
AD: 2.7 gram
AT: 30 miles thick
AD: 3.0 grams
AT: 5 miles thick
AD: 4.5 grams
AD: 10-13 grams
what is the crust, mantle and core made of?
crust: granite rock
mantle: ultramafic rock
core: iron and nickel
how do we know that the outer core is molten?
it is molten due to high heat
which layer is known as the rock sphere? The weak sphere? and the middle sphere?
what is the stable interior? what are its two parts
1. shield (granite rock is exposed)
2. platform (granite rock is covered)
where on the ocean floor is the youngest crust found?
How deep is the abyssal floor?
How deep and long are MOR's?
40,000 miles long and 8,000 ft deep
what are the two types of continental margins? (where land meets the ocean water)
t/f passive margins have wide shelfs
which type of margin are you likely to find active volcanos and earth quakes
where do intrusive and extrusive rocks form and what size crystals form from each
intrusive: forms by the cooling of molten rock
extrusive: forms when magma is erupted as lava from a volcano and is cooled rapidly
the oldest bed will be in the middle
the youngest bed will be in middle
occurs when forces are moving away from each other
creates normal faults
creates reverse and thrust faults and folds
causes strike - slip faults
Which era is 87% of Earth's history?
How old is the Earth?
4.6 billion years old
what are the 5 characteristics of minerals
1) naturally occurring
4) distinct chemical composition
5) arranged in crystal pattern
what is an isotope
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
which isotope is radioactive
how many electrons does it take to fill up each shell?
1st shell: one or two
2nd shell: 8
What is an element's atomic number?
number of protons in the nucleus
What is the atomic mass?
Number of protons and neutrons
which category of elements is chemically stable
what are the 4 types of bonds
4. van Der wall bonds
what are the 4 most common elements in the earths crust?
1. oxygen (46%)
2. silicon (28%)
3. aluminum (8%)
4. iron (5%)
which mineral group makes up 95% of the crust
5 Silicate Structures
Bowen's Reaction Series
The order in which minerals crystallize from magma
(OPAB) (KMQ) CA -PLAG, NA PLAG
T/F partial melting always creates a magma that is richer in silica
what are the two types of plutons
batholiths (largest type, have exposed surface of 100 km)
laccoliths (mushroom shaped pluton
what are the two types of sheet intrusions
still: intrusion between layers of rock
dike: cuts across the layers of rock
what are craters and calderas
crater: depression on top of volcano (100 ft across)
calderas: (huge bowl) up to 1000's of feet across
what are the 5 types of volcanos
1. shield (biggest)
3. cinder cone
5. mid ocean ridge
what is the only volcano that doesn't have mafic magma
what type of volcano forms over hot spots?
which types of volcanoes do not have a central cone
which volcano is built by alternating eruptions of ash and lava
what are the two types of pyroclastic flows
what are cindercone volcanos made of and how tall do they get?
made of scoria and pumice
not taller than 1500 ft
round blobs of basalt cooled in water
A hydrothermal vent on the ocean floor that emits a black cloud of hot, metal-rich water.
what are the 5 types of mechanical weathering
activities of organism
what are the 3 types of chemical weathering
dissolution, hydrolysis, oxidation
What mineral in the BRS is most stable?
what is sorting
refers to the degree to which all particles in sedimentary rock are the same size
what are the sediment transport mechanism
1. running water
what are the 4 steps of lithification in order?
2. burial beneath more sediment
Types of sedimentary structures
what are the 3 main depositional environment settings
1. continental setting
2. coast lines
3. marine depositional env.
what type of pressure is equal in all directions
what are the two types of metamorphism
contact and regional
what are the index minerals for each grade of metamorphism
What was Wegener's theory?
though all continents had collied to form a supercontinent called Pangea
what were the 5 pieces of evidence for wegener?
1. the fit of the continents
3. mountain ranges
4. matching sequence of layered rock
5. patterns of glacial striations
what are the 4 organisms used as a piece of his evidence
what is SONAR? what did it discover
instrument that creates sound waves that travel through water
magnetic stripes on the sea floor are proof of what
proved spreading of the sea floor at MOR's
what are earths 7 major plates
African, North American, South American, Indo-Australian, Eurasian, Antarctic, Pacific
what are the 3 types of plate boundaries
divergent, convergent, transform
volcano island arcs are associated with what type of plate boundary
what depth is a shallow, intermediate, and deep focus earthquakes
shallow: 70 km
deep: more than 300 km
what % of earthquakes happen at plate boundaries
why are intraplate earthquakes more destructive
can be anywhere and people cant tell they are coming
what are the 2 types of seismic waves
1. body waves
2. surface waves
one of a series of curves or loops in the course of a mature river
what are the 2 types of visible sediment and what are they made of
invisible - atoms of elements that are discovered in water
visible - mostly mud
What is aquifer?
An underground water reservoir.
What is aquitard?
rock material that is not porous enough to contain water, a barrier between rock layers that keeps liquid from passing through
what is an unconfined aquifer
open to the surface with a water table(not enough fractures)
has an aquitard layer below it not above it
what is recharge and discharge
recharge: add water to an aquifer
discharge: removal of water from aquifer
groundwater is affected by what 2 forces
What is a cone of depression?
the shape that the water table takes on near a pumping well
what is a landslide
down slope movement of material due to gravity
What is a slope's angle of repose?
all slopes are in dynamic equilibrium.
list 7 major causes of slope failure
weathering and climate
overloading of slope
geology of the area
Are steep slopes more or less stable than gradual slopes?
steeper slope more likely to fail
under what weather condition is a slope at its weakest
when its raining
how does vegetation affect slope failure
plants cover reduces the amount of water infiltration
types of slope failure
the gros venture river is an example of a
which type of slope failure is slow moving and contains heavy large rocks
what type of slope failure is when rocks fall through the air
how does a creep affect trees in the area
How to prevent slope failure
1. geologic study of building site
2. retaining wall
3. dewater the slope
what is a desert
areas with dry climates
What is a rain shadow desert?
when mountains are high enough it blocks moisture from getting inland
what is desert pavement
occur when wind blows away fine dust: dirt, sand and leaves gravel on the surface
what are the 2 types of desert deposition
what is a glacier
a large mass of moving ice
what are the 2 main types of glaciers
continental and valley
The balance, or lack of balance, between ice formation at the upper end of a glacier, and ice loss in the zone of wastage.
6 landforms created by glaciers
1. U shaped valley
2. hanging valley
name the 4 types of glacial deposits
what is a crevasse
deep fracture in the surface if a glacier forms when a glacier goes over a "step" in a land surface
what are the two ways glaciers move
plastic flow and basal slip
scratch marks in a fault plane by blocks grinding past each other
rule with anticline and synclines
in sequences of sediment beds in the lowest number represents the oldest bed
creates bed contacts that are straight and parallel to each other
have inclined axis
resources ( 2 types)
material resources (2 types)
used in industry, construction
*all must be concentrated by natural process to be economical
2. non metals
building materials, sand gravel clay
energy resources ( 2 types)
renewable and non renewable
energy that can be renewed
A source of energy that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted.
1. oil and gas
how much does our population grow per hour/ per day
10,700 people per hour
258,000 per day
in 1860 the world reached how many people
1 billion people
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