Psychology Fall Final

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Terms in this set (...)

polygenic traits
characteristics that are influenced by more than one pair of genes
human neoate
CANNOT lift their heads
all basic human emotion appear before what age?
2 years
Reversibility
the capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse direction, returning to the starting point
rooting reflex
a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple
Maturation
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
formal operational stage
the stage at which people develop the ability to think abstractly
Skinner's Behaviorism
scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants
Functional Psychology
thoughts and behaviors are understood as adaptations to the environment. they evolve
Neurotransmitters
Chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
Central Nervous System (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
occiptial lobe function
vision
hormone
the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect
Hippocampus
a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage
Cerebellum
Balance and coordination
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
destruction of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS and its replacement by plaques of sclerotic (hard) tissue
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last (a recency effect) and first items (a primacy effect) in a list
explicit memory
the act of consciously or intentionally retrieving past experiences
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called procedural memory.)
Wilhelm Wundt
father of psychology
Behaviorist Theory
Personality is constructed by a series of learning experiences that occur through interactions between the individual and their environment.
Scientific Method
A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.
observer bias
tendency of observers to see what they expect to see
experimental research
studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors (independent variables) while controlling others (holding them constant)
independent variable
variable that is manipulated
placebo effect
the phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior
psychodynamic perspective
the approach based on the view that behavior is motivated by unconscious inner forces over which the individual has little control
Overly permissive
Give little guidance, allow too much freedom, or don't require child to take responsibility; children tend to be dependent and immature and frequently misbehave
authoritarian parenting
style of parenting in which parent is rigid and overly strict, showing little warmth to the child
Chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
maintenance rehearsal
A system for remembering involving repeating information to oneself without attempting to find meaning in it
Loftus and Palmer (1974)
different words had an effect on the estimation of speed and perception of consequences
procedural memory (implicit)
motor skills, habits, classically conditioned reflexes
semantic memory
memory for knowledge about the world
episodic memory
memory for one's personal past experiences
Recall
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
recognition
selecting previously remembered information from an array of options
tip-of-the-tounge (TOT) phenomenon
experience of knowing that we know something but being unable to access it
autonomic nervous system
The part of the PNS that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs.
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
PET scan (positron emission tomography)
A brain-imaging technique that reveals activity in various parts of the brain, based on patterns of blood flow, oxygen use, and glucose consumption.
pineal gland
produces melatonin
frontal lobe is the location for what sensory input?
smell
temporal lobe function
hearing
hypothalamus function
regulates bodily homeostasis: water balance/bp/temp /hunger/thirst/sex.
endocrine system
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream