The Americans Chapter 9 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (34)
In farming, the raising of one or two crops for sale rather than a variety of foods for personal use
The major change in the U.S. economy produced by people's beginning to buy and sell goods rather than make them for themselves
An economic system in which private individuals and corporations control the means of production and use them to earn profits
A person who organizes, operates, and assumes the risk for a business venture
Samuel F.B. Morse
an American painter of portraits and historic scenes, the creator of a single wire telegraph system, and co-inventor, with Alfred Vail, of the Morse Code
A device for the electrical transmission of coded messages over wires
founder of john Deere and company the biggest manufacture of agricultural equipment in the world. he was an american blacksmith and invented the steel plow.
an american inventor from Virginia who founded the McCormick harvesting machine company after his father patented the reaper.
The 19th century belief that the United States would inevitably expand westward to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican territory
Treaty of Fort Laramie
The treaty requiring the Sioux to live on a reservation in the Missouri River
Santa Fe Trail
A route from Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe, New Mexico used by traders in the early and mid 1800's
A route from Independence Missouri, to Oregon City, Oregon, used by pioneers traveling to Oregon Territory
Members of a church founded by Joseph Smith and his associates in 1830
an American religious leader and the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, the predominant branch of which is Mormonism. At age twenty-four, Smith published the Book of Mormon
an American leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and a settler of the Western United States. He was the President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) and he founded Salt Lake City
"Fifty-Four Forty or Fight"
An aggressive slogan adopted in the Oregon boundary dispute, a dispute over where the border between Canada and Oregon should be drawn. This was also Polk's slogan- the Democrats' wanted the U.S. border drawn at the 54'40" latitude. Polk settled for the 49 latitude in 1846.
Stephen F. Austin
known as the Father of Texas, led the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States.
A gift of public land to an individual or organization
Antonia Lopez de Santa Anna
Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876)
War between Texas settlers and Mexico from 1835-1836 resulting in the formation of the Republic of Texas
Santa Anna's army succeeded in late 1836. His force of 4000 men laid siege to San Antonio, whose 200 Texan defenders retreated into an abandoned mission, the Alamo. After repeated attacks, the remaining 187 Texans including Davy Crockett were wiped out and a few weeks later Mexican troops massacred some 350 Teas prisoners.
United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863)
Republic of Texas
The nation est. in 1836 when American settlers in the Mexican province of Tejas declared and fought for their independence, also commonly know at the time as the "Lone Star Republic"
To incorporate a territory into an existing political unit, such as a nation or state
James K Polk
the 11th president of the US and the last strong president leading up to the civil war and was successful in foreign affairs.
Republic of California
Also known as the "Bear Flag Republic". A revolt of American settlers in California against Mexican rule. It ignited the Mexican War and ultimately made California a state.
United States general who was a hero of the War of 1812 and who defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War (1786-1866)
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
The 1853 treaty in which the United States bought from Mexico parts of what is now southern Arizona and southern New Mexico. Southerners wanted this land in order to build southern transcontinental railroad, it also showed the American belief in Manifest Destiny. The heated debate over this issue in the Senate demonstrates the prevalence of sectional disagreement.
The people who migrated to California in search of riches after gold was discovered there in 1848
Prior to the Mexican American war president Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico to negotiate an agreement between that the Rio Grande River would be the southern border of Texas. Instructed to offer 30 million for California. Mexico denied Slidell's mission and war was declared on May 13 1846.
John L. O'Sullivan
the editor of the United States Magazine and Democratic Review who coined the name Manifest Destiny for the expansionist movement. He believed that it was the divine right of Americans to expand and became the expansionist movement.
Americans who decided to emigrate to Texas who were encouraged by the Mexican government in order to create a military buffer between the marauding Indians and the southern provinces. The Americans were required to give up their citizenship, convert to Roman Catholicism, and become Mexican citizens. In return, they were granted huge tracts of land in the region bordering Louisiana. The first American empresario was Moses Austin, a former New Englander who had traded with the Spanish for decades. This idea was important because it led to the secession of Texas from Mexico and then becoming part of the Union, which brought about many issues that led to the Civil War.
Hundreds of thousands of people from around the world, mostly young men, came to California in 1849 after gold was discovered in search of instant riches.
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