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GENE 412 FINAL pg 11-15
Terms in this set (69)
Neutral allele intraspecific heterozygosity is equal to ϴ/ (ϴ+1),where ϴ =:
What does principal component analysis show?
Haplotypes and their relative contribution to overall variation
The course of adaptive evolution is strongly influence by
Butterfly wings versus bird wings is an example of
Fragile X Syndrome was used as an example of
Which of these can produce one-locus evolutionary change?
Neutral theory states
Molecular evolution occurs equal to the neutral mutation rate
Which of the following generally involves many loci with different biochemical, cellular, or developmental functions?
The chances of an individual passing on its DNA in the context of the environment can be defined as:
FST can be used for all of the following
A) construct model based trees B) estimate migration C) show isolation by distance D) measure of the deficiency homozygosity
According to "near" neutral theory, an allele is more likely to behave as neutral allele when the effective inbreeding population size is:
If the value of D is negative, which of the following is true?
Dmax is the lesser of F(A) x F(B) or F(a) x F(b)
Which of the following is an example of vertical transmission?
transmission of genetic material from a parent to an offspring
A large overall excess of homozygotes (FIT >> 0.0) may be due to:
A) Wahlund effect B) System of Mating C) Isolation by distance D) Population structure E) It could be any of these.
Natural Selection is necessary for Adaptation but not:
Which of the following is not an assumption for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
An allele "A" is selected against when:
aA<0 (average access is negative)
What is the rate of substitution of one SNP for another equal to
the neutral mutation rate
Regarding Altruism what of the following is FALSE
B is the benefit to others
Regarding Altruism what is true
A)When the cost equals one, that means death
B) r = relatedness
C) B is the benefit to your genotype
D) r = 2 X F, where F is the (theoretical) inbreeding in a child of the two being compared for relatedness
The inbreeding coefficient (F) is defined as
homozygosity by descent
Many factors can create linkage disequilibrium including:
A) Mutation B) nonrandom mating C) Finite population size D) Gene flow and natural selection E) All of the above
Which describes how natural selection operates upon the phenotype of fitness when fitness is regarded as a heritable but genetically unmeasured trait?
fundamental theorem of natural selection
The level of biological organization that displays the phenotype under selection is the
target of selection
Which of the following is NOT true of assortative mating?
it alters genotype frequencies at multiple loci
Which of the following scenarios are possible in a population structure?
A) FST > 0, B) FIS < 0, C) FIT < 0, D) NefM < FST, E) All of the following scenarios are possible
Which of the following is incorrect regarding the implications of Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection.
the course of adaptive evolution is not strongly influenced by genetic architecture,
Which of the following is correct regarding the implications of Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection.
A) natural selection can only operate when there is genetic variation associated with phenotypic variation for fitness in the population, B) natural selection acts to increase the average fitness of a population an a per generation basis, D) the adaptive outcome represents an interaction of fitness variation with population structure
The effective inbreeding size will be less than the census population size when:
The sex ratio is anything other than 1:1
Assortative mating has the largest effect on which of the following:
Genome architecture strongly influences
In a finite population, loss of variation due to genetic drift is a function of:
effective variance population size
molecular clock is in what theory
To develop the course of evolution, natural selection
necessary but not sufficient
The best marker for a QTL is one that
is most associated with that QTL, as indicated by D' = 1.0 or 1.0
Phenotypic differences between ethnic groups can explained to a large extent as due to:
Different allele frequencies in isolated populations of humans can be explained to a large extent as due to
We often see a relationship between parasites and other pathogens and allele frequency. This relationship is likely due to
What two forces maintain genetic polymorphisms within a population
disassortative mating and balancing selection
What two forces introduce genetic variation into a population
mutation and migration
Allele frequency is changed little or not at all by the sole action of:
A) random mating,
B) assortative mating,
C) Pedigree inbreeding,
E) A, B & C
You observe a 20% change of allele frequency in three loci over a period of only 5 years, which change corresponds with a change in the environment The most likely cause of this change is
Fst is a
measure of distance
Which of the following is true concerning Neutral Theory?
The probability of a new mutation being fixed is the frequency of that new mutation
Coral and Oysters may have very low levels of genetic variation due to
very high variation in offspring per female
What has the ability to create and maintain linkage disequilibrium
A value of Fis<0.0. unlike the results for races of man, was found in which population?
What is concerted evolution
families of genes evolving together
Which of the following is correct about the neighbor joining tree method
it uses synapomorphies and automorphies
The phenomenon that violates the laws of segregation by favoring the transmission of one locus over the other in a given gene is described as:
A trait that is shared by species but not present in common ancestors and creates problems for estimating parsimony is
A fallacy of neutral theory is:
A) the neutral theory of molecular evolution diminishes the role of natural selection.
B) Only genes that are unimportant can undergo neutral mutations.
C) Nucleotides that can undergo neutral mutation are not subject to selective constraints.
D) Neutral alleles are neutral for all time.
E) All of these are fallacies.
When making a gene tree, putting birds and insects on the same branch because they both have the ability to fly would be an example of
All of these are examples of a target of selection above the level of the individual except:
All of these are examples of a target of selection above the level of the individual:
A) Competition between individuals of the same sex.
C) Family Selection.
D) Competition between individuals of the opposite sex.
E) Decreased fertility.
What is a mutation that only one species has that differs from ancestral DNA referred to as?
In the process of selection, what genetic factors "build up" the unit of selection?
C) Strong selection
E) Both A and C are correct
When growing Drosphilia in tubes, there are two versions of an allele that tell the female where to lay eggs. One version tells the females to lay the eggs near the top, while the other tells the female to lay the eggs on the bottom near the food source. Alone, these strategies are neutral. However, when one of the alleles is rarer, it confers higher fitness because of crowding conditions. What is this phenomena known as?
frequency dependent selection
________ evolves in a population when the benefit of protecting others related to you while endangering yourself outweighs the cost to your own fitness.
Alternative states of a homologous DNA region that may or may not correspond to a gene locus refers to what?
Fisher's fundamental theorem of Natural Selection does not hold when the target of selection is:
Fisher's fundamental theorem of Natural Selection does hold when the target of selection is:
A) the individual,
B) a transposon,
C) a trinucleotide repeat,
Natural selection favors:
Gametes with positive average excesses of fitness
A) are a repetitive mobile sequences that are dispersed throughout the genome
B) are units of selection that can have multiple targets of selection
C) often affect fitness at the individual level
D) can "infect" an individual via horizontal transmission
E) all of the above describe transposons
What is hard selection?
the number of offspring from a population depends upon the genetic composition of the population
Which characterizes a phenotypic cline?
gradual shifts of phenotypic frequencies or mean phenotypes over geographical space
The theory where an allele is more likely to act like a neutral allele in a population with small effective inbreeding size
"near" neutral theory
In construction of gene trees, synapomorphies are used to join taxa that:
shared diverged characters
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