Gen Psych Test 4 ch. 10-12
Terms in this set (45)
During the prenatal stage, the fertilized egg is called a(n)
Based on Mary Ainsworth's studies, ________ children did not care if the mother left the room, made little effort to seek contact with her on her return, and treated a stranger about the same way as the mother.
According to Jean Piaget, object permanence develops during the ________ stage.
The process by which children learn the abilities, interests, and behaviors associated with being masculine or feminine in their culture is called
Babies recognize key vowel and consonant sounds of their native language by
According to Erik Erickson, when does the challenge of generativity versus stagnation occur?
conflicts with parents over autonomy
Which of the following is one of the three kinds of problems that are more common during adolescence than during other developmental stages?
After implantation of the zygote in the uterine wall is complete, the ________ stage of prenatal development begins.
increased likelihood of miscarriage, prematurity, and low birth weight
According to your textbook, which of the following outcomes is associated with maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy?
Most children become wary or fearful of strangers between the ages of
According to Jean Piaget, at what developmental stage would a child come to understand conservation and cause and effect?
The fundamental sense of being male or female, independent of whether you conform to the social rules of gender, is called
Children are fairly resilient to trauma, especially if they have easygoing temperaments or personality traits.
According to research discussed in your textbook, which of the following is true about resilience?
________ is the process by which children learn the rules and behavior expected of them by society.
According to Noam Chomsky, the human brain contains an innate mental module called ________ that allows young children to develop language if they are exposed to an adequate sampling of conversation.
dispositional and situational
According to attribution theory, the explanations we give for our behavior and the behavior of others generally fall into two categories
Jansen believes that drinking is harmful, but has drink after work with his friend once in a while. Jansen feels very uneasy about the conflict between his beliefs and behavior. He is most likely experiencing
________ is a tendency for people on a team or a mission together to agree with each other and suppress dissension among their ranks.
diffusion of responsibility
Luke walks around his busy college campus between classes. He notices smoke coming from the side of the cafeteria, but assumes that someone inside already has called the fire department. What phenomenon does this example illustrate?
feel more positive toward a person, item, product, or other stimulus that they have seen often.
the familiarity effect is the tendency of people to
they exaggerate differences between groups
One way in which stereotypes can distort reality is that
________ are the rules that regulate social life within a culture.
certain aspects of every role must be carried out or there will almost always be penalties.
Research on social roles suggests that
rules or norms
Culture can be defined as a program of shared ________ that govern the behavior of people in a society, as well as a set of shared values and beliefs.
________ is defined as a gradual process in which individuals escalate their commitment to a course of action to justify their investment of time, money, or effort.
A friend who is moving asks you to bring over a few empty boxes; when you arrive, he asks you to fill the boxes with dishes, and before you realize, you've packed his entire kitchen.
Which of the following is an example of entrapment as it relates to obedience?
Social _______________ refers to the effect of social influences on thought, memory, perception, and beliefs.
the explanations people make about the causes of their own behaviors and the behaviors of others.
attribution theory examines
While stuck in a traffic jam, Vanessa notices a frustrated driver frequently honking his horn. Vanessa thinks to herself, "That driver is a real jerk!" This is an example of a _______________ attribution.
the fundamental attribution error
______________ refers to the tendency to overestimate dispositional influences (and underestimate situational influences) when explaining another person's behavior.
_______________ is defined as a distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual throughout life.
Marcus is angry when the teacher blames him for misbehaving when it actually was the child behind him who had been acting up. As he leaves after school, he shoves another boy who gets in his way. Freud would say that Marcus is unconsciously using the defense mechanism of
Innate physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways that are present in infancy are called
Which of the following theories of personality would be most likely to emphasize the freedom of individuals to choose to act in particular ways?
According to the ____________ view of personality, the story we tell about ourselves shapes who we are.
_______________ is a habitual way of behaving, thinking, and feeling
In psychoanalysis, the part of the personality that represents reason, good sense, and rational self-control is called
_______________ occurs when people refuse to admit to an event, feeling, or memory that causes them anxiety or distress.
the evidence does not support it
What does the empirical evidence show about the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator's ability to predict a person's behavior on the job or in relationships?
openness to experience
Which of the following is one of the Big Five personality traits?
A person's personality can affect the way they perceive an experience. Conversely, different experiences can change the way a person's perceptions take place. This is an example of which concept?
_______________ is a statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait among individuals within a group that is attributable to genetic differences.
give priority to personal goals
Members of individualist cultures
Penelope is a folklorist who studies myths and stories from different cultures around the world. She notices that there are some character types that appear frequently, despite the fact that the cultures she studies have had little to no contact with each other. Whose work would Penelope likely cite to explain this observation?
five to ten central traits and additional secondary traits
For Gordon Allport, our personalities reflect
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