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PMBOK 5th edition Tools and Techniques
The Tools and Techniques of the Guide to the Project Management Body Of Knowledge
Terms in this set (124)
Obtaining human and material resources necessary to perform project activities. Acquisition implies a cost of resources, and is not necessarily financial.
Additional quality planning tools
A set of tools used to define the quality requirements and to plan effective quality management activities. They include, but are not limited to: brainstorming, force field analysis, nominal group techniques and quality management and control tools.
The process of calling public attention to a project or effort.
A technique used to evaluate identified options in order to select which options or approaches to use to execute and perform the work of the project.
A technique used to develop as many potential options as possible in order to identify different approaches to execute and perform the work of the project.
A technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project.
Various techniques used to evaluate, analyze, or forecast potential outcomes based on possible variations of project or environmental variables and their relationships with other variables.
Approved change requests review
A review of the change requests to verify that these were implemented as approved.
A technique that explores the accuracy of assumptions and identifies risks to the project from inaccuracy, inconsistency, or incompleteness of assumptions.
Benchmarking is the comparison of actual or planned practices, such as processes and operations, to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance.
The meetings with prospective sellers prior to the preparation of a bid or proposal to ensure all prospective vendors have a clear and common understanding of the procurement. Also known as contractor conferences, vendor conferences, or pre-bid conferences.
Bottom up estimating
A method of estimating project duration or cost by aggregating the estimates of the lower-level components of the work breakdown structure (WBS).
Change control tools
Manual or automated tools to assist with change and/or configuration management. At a minimum, the tools should support the activities of the CCB.
A technique for systematically reviewing materials using a list for accuracy and completeness.
The process of processing, adjudicating, and communicating contract claims.
An organizational placement strategy where the project team members are physically located close to one another in order to improve communication, working relationships, and productivity.
A systematic procedure, technique, or process used to transfer information among project stakeholders.
A description, analogy or schematic used to represent how the communication process will be performed for the project.
Communication requierments analysis
An analytical technique to determine the information needs of the project stakeholders through interviews, workshops, study of lessons learned from previous projects, etc.
Specific tools, systems, computer programs, etc., used to transfer information among project stakeholders.
Handling, controlling, and guiding a conflictual situation to achieve a resolution.
A visual depiction of the product scope showing a business system (process, equipment, computer system, etc.), and how people and other systems (actors) interact with it.
Contingent response strategies
Responses provided which may be used in the event that a specific trigger occurs.
Contract change control system
The system used to collect, track, adjudicate, and communicate changes to a contract.
Summing the lower-level cost estimates associated with the various work packages for a given level within the project's WBS or for a given cost control account.
Cost benefit analysis
A financial analysis tool used to determine the benefits provided by a project against its costs.
Cost of quality COQ
A method of determining the costs incurred to ensure quality. Prevention and appraisal costs (cost of conformance) include costs for quality planning, quality control (QC), and quality assurance to ensure compliance to requirements (i.e., training, QC systems, etc.). Failure costs (cost of nonconformance) include costs to rework products, components, or processes that are non-compliant, costs of warranty work and waste, and loss of reputation.
Critical chain method CCM
A schedule method that allows the project team to place buffers on any project schedule path to account for limited resources and project uncertainties.
Critical path method CPM
A method used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model.
Data gathering and representation techniques
Techniques used to collect, organize, and present data and information. 11.4.2 For gatehring data we use interviewing and for representing or displaying the information we use probability distributions of which there are two types: Continous and discrete, examples of continous distributions are Beta, Triangular, Uniform, Normal, Log normal
A technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts.
A technique used to identify the type of dependency that is used to create the logical relationships between predecessor and successor activities.
Design of experiments
A statistical method for identifying which factors may influence specific variables of a product or process under development or in production.
Approaches to presenting information with logical linkages that aid in understanding. Examples are; cause and effect diagrams, system or process flow charts, influence diagrams.
An elicitation technique that analyzes existing documentation and identifies information relevant to the requirements.
The process of gathering information and reviewing it to determine accuracy and completeness.
Earned value management
A methodology that combines scope, schedule, and resource measurements to assess project performance and progress.
Judgment provided based upon expertise in an application area, knowledge area, discipline, industry, etc., as appropriate for the activity being performed. Such expertise may be provided by any group or person with specialized education, knowledge, skill, experience, or training.
An elicitation technique using focused sessions that bring key cross-functional stakeholders together to define product requirements.
Techniques used to achieve agreement to accomplish project activities. Examples are brainstorming, conflict resolution, problem solving, meeting management.
An elicitation technique that brings together prequalified stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about their expectations and attitudes about a proposed product, service, or result.
An estimate or prediction of conditions and events in the project's future based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast. The information is based on the project's past performance and expected future performance, and includes information that could impact the project in the future, such as estimate at completion and estimate to complete.
Funding limit reconciliation
The process of comparing the planned expenditure of project funds against any limits on the commitment of funds for the project to identify any variances between the funding limits and the planned expenditures.
Expectations regarding acceptable behavior by project team members.
Group creativity techniques
Techniques that are used to generate ideas within a group of stakeholders. Examples include brainstorming, nominal group technique, idea/mind mapping, affinity diagrams, multicriteria decision analysis.
Group decision making techniques
Techniques to assess multiple alternatives that will be used to generate, classify, and prioritize product requirements. Methods of reaching a group decision are unanimity, majority, plurality, dictatorship.
Used by the Determine Budget process 7.3, historical information used to develop cost estimates.
A process of using a third party to obtain and analyze information to support prediction of cost, schedule, or other items.
Information gathering techniques
Repeatable processes used to assemble and organize data across a spectrum of sources. Examples are brainstorming, delphi technique, interviewing, root cause analysis.
Information management systems
Facilities, processes, and procedures used to collect, store, and distribute information between producers and consumers of information in physical or electronic format.
Examining or measuring to verify whether an activity, component, product, result, or service conforms to specified requirements.
Inspections and audits
A process to observe performance of contracted work or a promised product against agreed-upon requirements.
Ability to establish and maintain relationships with other people.
A formal or informal approach to elicit information from stakeholders by talking to them directly.
Leads and lags
The amount of time whereby a successor activity is required to be delayed with respect to a predecessor activity. Lead. The amount of time whereby a successor activity can be advanced with respect to a predecessor activity.
Make or buy analysis
The process of gathering and organizing data about product requirements and analyzing them against available alternatives including the purchase or internal manufacture of the product.
The ability to plan, organize, direct, and control individuals or groups of people to achieve specific goals.
The process of gathering information at conferences, online reviews, and a variety of sources to identify market capabilities.
People getting together and discussing particular things.
Examples are what if senario analysis, simulation.
Multi criteria decision analysis
This technique utilizes a decision matrix to provide a systematic analytical approach for establishing criteria, such as risk levels, uncertainty, and valuation, to evaluate and rank many ideas.
The process and activities to resolving disputes through consultations between involved parties.
Establishing connections and relationships with other people from the same or other organizations.
Observation and conversation
Thes are used to stay in touch with with the work and attitudes of the project team members. See 9.4
A technique that provides a direct way of viewing individuals in their environment performing their jobs or tasks and carrying out processes.
Organization charts and position descriptions
See 9.1, Various formats exist to document team member roles and responsibilities such as, hierarchical type charts, matrix based charts (ie; RACI), text oriented formats.
The different ways different organizations accomplish the same tasks/projects, this is my definition
An estimating technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters.
The system used to provide and track supplier's invoices and payments for services and products.
See work performance reports. Performance Reports. See work performance reports. Work Performance Reports. The physical or electronic representation of work performance information compiled in project documents, intended to generate decisions, actions, or awareness
A technique that is used to measure, compare, and analyze actual performance of work in progress on the project against the baseline.
Personnel assessment tools
See 9.3, tools to help assess the strengths and weaknesses of team members, such as, attitude surveys, specific assessments, structured interviews, ability tests, focus groups.
See 9.2, Selecting team member(s) in advance.
Precedence diagramming method PDM
A technique used for constructing a schedule model in which activities are represented by nodes and are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed.
Probability and impact matrix
A grid for mapping the probability of each risk occurrence and its impact on project objectives if that risk occurs.
A process analysis follows the steps outlined in the process improvement plan to identify needed improvements.
The review of contracts and contracting processes for completeness, accuracy, and effectiveness.
See 12.2, These clarify the structure, requirements, and other terms of the purchases so that mutual agreement can be reached prior to signing the contract.
Procurement performance reviews
A structured review of the seller's progress to deliver project scope and quality, within cost and on schedule, as compared to the contract.
For projects that have a product as a deliverable, it is a tool to define scope that generally means asking questions about a product and forming answers to describe the use, characteristics, and other the relevant aspects of what is going to be manufactured.
Project management information system PMIS
An information system consisting of the tools and techniques used to gather, integrate, and disseminate the outputs of project management processes. It is used to support all aspects of the project from initiating through closing, and can include both manual and automated systems.
Project management software
See 6.4 an example is scheduling software, Ie; MS Project
Project performance appraisals
See 9.4, Appraising the performance of team members during the project.
Proposal evaluation techniques
The process of reviewing proposals provided by suppliers to support contract award decisions.
A method of obtaining early feedback on requirements by providing a working model of the expected product before actually building it.
Published estimating data
See 6.4, Published data for production rates, labor rates, material rates etc.
A quality audit is a structured, independent process to determine if project activities comply with organizational and project policies, processes, and procedures.
Quality management and control tools
They are a type of quality planning tools used to link and sequence the activities identified.
Quantitative risk analysis and modeling techniques
Commonly used techniques for both event-oriented and project-oriented analysis approaches. Examples are sensitivity analysis, expected monetary value analysis, modeling and simulation.
Questionnaires and surveys
Written sets of questions designed to quickly accumulate information from a large number of respondents.
Recognition and rewards
See 9.3 A way of developing the project team members.
Records management system
A specific set of processes, related control functions, and tools that are consolidated and combined to record and retain information about the project.
An analytical technique to determine the essential features and relationships of components in the project management plan to establish a reserve for the schedule duration, budget, estimated cost, or funds for a project.
Resource optimization techniques
A technique that is used to adjust the start and finish dates of activities that adjust planned resource use to be equal to or less than resource availability.
Examination and documentation of the effectiveness of risk responses in dealing with identified risks and their root causes, as well as the effectiveness of the risk management process.
Organization by sources of risk (e.g., using the RBS), the area of the project affected (e.g., using the WBS), or other useful category (e.g., project phase) to determine the areas of the project most exposed to the effects of uncertainty.
Risk data quality assessment
Technique to evaluate the degree to which the data about risks is useful for risk management.
Risk probability and impact assessment
See 11.3. This assess the level of probability for each risk and its impact on each objective.
Risk reassessment is the identification of new risks, reassessment of current risks, and the closing of risks that are outdated.
Risk urgency assessment
Review and determination of the timing of actions that may need to occur sooner than other risk items.
Rolling wave planning
An iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while the work in the future is planned at a higher level.
Techniques used to shorten the schedule duration without reducing the project scope.
Schedule network analysis
The technique of identifying early and late start dates, as well as early and late finish dates, for the uncompleted portions of project schedule activities. See also backward pass, critical path method, critical chain method, and resource leveling.
A tool that provides schedule component names, definitions, structural relationships, and formats that support the application of a scheduling method.
Seven basic quality tools
A standard toolkit used by quality management professionals who are responsible for planning, monitoring, and controlling the issues related to quality in an organization. Cause and effect diagrams (also called Ishakawa and Fish bone), Flowcharts (also called Process maps), Checksheets (also called Tally sheets), Pareto diagrams (a special form of vertical bar chart), Histograms (a special form of bar chart), Control Charts, Scatter Diagrams."
A technique of systematically gathering and analyzing quantitative and qualitative information to determine whose interests should be taken into account throughout the project.
Choosing part of a population of interest for inspection.
Strategies for negative risks or threats
See 11.5, These include avoid, transfer, mitigate, accept.
Strategies for positive risks or opportunities
See 11.5, These include exploit, enhance, share, accept.
Analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of an organization, project, or option.
Team building activities
See 9.3, any activity that helps the team work better together. The Tuckman ladder gives 5 stages of team development; forming, storming, norming, performing, adjouring.
Technical performance measurement
184.108.40.206 compares technical accomplishments during project execution to the schedule of technical achievement. It requires the definition of objective, quantifiable measures of technical performance, which can be used to compare actual results against targets. Such technical performance measures may include weight, transaction times, number of delivered defects, storage capacity, etc. Deviation, such as demonstrating more or less functionality than planned at a milestone, can help to forecast the degree of success in achieving the project's scope.
Three point estimating
A technique used to estimate cost or duration by applying an average of optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely estimates when there is uncertainty with the individual activity estimates.
To complete performance index TCPI
A measure of the cost performance that is required to be achieved with the remaining resources in order to meet a specified management goal, expressed as the ratio of the cost to finish the outstanding work to the remaining budget.
See 9.3, Any activity designed to enhance the competencies of team members.
A technique for determining the cause and degree of difference between the baseline and actual performance.
Variance and trend analysis
A technique for determining the cause and degree of difference between the baseline and actual performance. Trend Analysis. An analytical technique that uses mathematical models to forecast future outcomes based on historical results. It is a method of determining the variance from a baseline of a budget, cost, schedule, or scope parameter by using prior progress reporting periods' data and projecting how much that parameter's variance from baseline might be at some future point in the project if no changes are made in executing the project.
Vendor bid analysis
Cost estimating methods may include analysis of what the project should cost, based on the responsive bids from qualified vendors. When projects are awarded to a vendor under competitive processes, additional cost estimating work may be required of the project team to examine the price of individual deliverables and to derive a cost that supports the final total project cost. 7.2
See 9.2. Teams that spend little or no time in face to face meetings.
An information gathering technique used to anonymously reach a consensus of experts on a subject.
Root cause analysis
An analytical technique used to determine the basic underlying reason that causes a variance or a defect or a risk. A root cause may underlie more tnan one varance, defect or risk.
A general data gathering and creativity technique used to identify risks, ideas or solutions to issues by using a group of team members or subject matter experts.
Cause and effect diagram
A decomposition technique that helps trace an undesireable effect back to its root cause, also called Ishakawa or fishbone diagrams
A graphical representation of situations which shows causal influences, time ordering of events and other relationships among variables and outcomes.
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