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49 terms

Chapter 8

The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance
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"like begets like"
the phrase that refers to the ability of organisms to asexually reproduce their own kind
ex. maple trees produce maple trees, etc.
does not apply to sexual reproduction because the offspring is not genetically identical to the parents
cell division
the reproduction of cells

enables cells to grow, old cells to be replaced
binary fission
When a single-celled organism reproduces asexually by dividing in half
chromatin
DNA and protein that makes up chromosomes
chromosome
A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
sister chromatids
after the chromosomes are duplicated, the chromosomes contain two ________, proteins attached together that contain identical copies of the same DNA molecule
centromere
sister chromatids are joined together here, a narrow waist
cell cycle
An ordered sequence of events in the life of a eukaryotic cell, from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into two.
interphase
During _____ the cell grows and replicates both its organelles and its chromosomes.
lasts for most of the cell's lifetime
mitotic phase
Stage of the cell cycle when a cell is actively dividing
mitosis
Cell's division (PMAT) of the nucleus. Final product is 2 cells that are exactly like the parent cell.
cytokenisis
the division of the cytoplasm that forms two daughter cells
prophase
1st stage Chromosomes become visible, nuclear envelop dissolves, spindle forms
prometaphase
-Chromosomes attach to microtubules at the kinteochore(black dot protein thingy that helps move the chromosome), forming a spindle
metaphase
Chromosomes align in the middle of the cell (metaphase plate) with their homologous pair
The centromeres (chromosome waist) are all aligned
anaphase
the chromatids of each chromosome separate at the centromere and move in opposite directions toward each end of the pole
telophase
Cell finishes dividing, chromosomes lengthen and become thinner, nuclear membrane reappears, cytoplasm gets divided up evenly
cleavage furrow
The area of the cell membrane that pinches in and eventually separates the dividing cell
cytokinesis in plant cells
vesicles containing cell wall material collect at the middle of the parent cell, forming a cell plate
cell plate
a membranous plate that grows outward and fuses with the plasma membrane
anchorage dependence
the requirement that to divide, a cell must be attached to a solid surface.
density-dependent inhibition
The phenomenon observed in normal animal cells that causes them to stop dividing when they come into contact with one another.
growth factor
A protein secreted by certain body cells that stimulates other cells to divide
cell cycle control system
A cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle.
Like how the pituitary gland is like "time for puberty"
pretty much
cancer cells
Do not have a properly functioning cell-cycle system; instead, they divide excessively and can invade other tissues of the body
tumor
A mass of abnormal cells that develops when cancerous cells divide and grow uncontrollably.
benign tumor
A mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of origin
malignant tumor
A cancerous tumor that is invasive enough to impair the functions of one or more organs.
somatic cell
Body cells
homologous chromosomes
Chromosomes with matching information
carcinomas
cancers that arise in the skin, body chamber linings, or glands
locus
A specific place along the length of a chromosome where a given gene is located.
sex chromosomes
Chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual- X and Y
diploid cell
A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
autosomes
Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
gametes
A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm. Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
haploid cell
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
zygote
Fertilized egg
meiosis
a type of cell division that produces haploid gametes in diploid cells
crossing over
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
chiasma
Point at which chromatids break and rejoin in crossing over.
karyotype
A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
down syndrome
A condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
nondisjunction
Error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate.
deletion
Change to a chromosome in which a fragment of the chromosome is removed
duplication
Change in chromosome structure in which a particular segment is present more than once in the same chromosome
inversion
A chromosomal fragment breaks off and reattaches to its original chromosome but in the reverse orientation
translocation
Change to a chromosome in which a fragment of one chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome
genetic recombination
the production of gene combinations different than those carried by the original chromosomes