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Microbiology 205

Test 1 Study Guide 1 The Microbial World and You 3 Observing Microorganisms Through a Microscope 4 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
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1-1 List several ways in which microbes affect our lives.
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Describe some of the destructive and beneficial actions of microbes.
destructive: pathogenic; spoil foods;
soil microbes break down wastes; beneficial: photosynthesis, digestion and synthesis of vitamins; produce acetone and butanol; produce foods; make jeans;
1-2 Recognize the system of scientific nomenclature that uses two names:
a genus and a specific epithet (species)
Distinguish a genus from a specific epithet.
a genus: Capitalized and
a specific epithet (species): not capitalized
1-3 Differentiate the major characteristics of each group of microorganisms.
Bacteria - simple, single-celled organisms, DNA not enclosed, Prokaryotic, peptidoglycan cell wall, binary fission (split into 2 equal parts), contain flagella

Archaea - prokaryotic, peptidoglycan cell wall, found in extreme environments; pathogenic in humans

Fungi- Eukaryotic, nucleus containing DNA, uni/multi cellular, photosynthesis, chitin cell wall, sexually or asexual repoduction

Protozoa - unicellular, eukaryotic, move using pseudopods, flagella or cilia, photosynthesis, sexual/asexual reproduction

Algae - eukaryotic, photosynthetic, unicellular, cellulose cell wall.

Viruses - acellular, simple, one type of nucleic acid, must have host to survive.

Multicellular Animal Parasites/Helminths - eukaryotic, (flat/round worms)
Which groups of microbes are prokaryotes?
Bacteria and archaea
Which are eukaryotes?
Algae, Fungi, Protozoa
1-4 List the three domains. What are the three domains?
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
1-5 Explain the importance of observations made by Hooke and van Leeuwenhoek.
He discovered life's smallest structural units called 'cells'; discovered live microorganisms
What is the cell theory?
all living things are composed of cells
1-6 Compare spontaneous generation and biogenesis.
Belief that some forms of life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter;
What evidence supported spontaneous generation?
Redi's experiment with one covered and one uncovered meat jar producing maggots proved that this could not occur spontaneously
1-7 Identify the contributions to microbiology made by Needham,
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Identify the contributions to microbiology made by Spallanzani
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Identify the contributions to microbiology made by Virchow
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Identify the contributions to microbiology made by Pasteur.
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How was spontaneous generation disproved?
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1-8 Explain how Pasteur's work influenced Lister and Koch.
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Summarize in your own words the germ theory of disease.
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1-9 Identify the importance of Koch's postulates.
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What is the importance of Koch's postulates?
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1-10 Identify the importance of Jenner's work.
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What is the significance of Jenner's discovery?
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1-11 Identify the contributions to microbiology made by Ehrlich and Fleming.
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What was Ehrlich's "magic bullet"?
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1-12 Define bacteriology
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Define mycology
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Define parasitology
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Define immunology
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Define virology.
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1-13 Explain the importance of microbial genetics and molecular biology.
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Differentiate microbial genetics from molecular biology.
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1-14 List at least four beneficial activities of microorganisms.
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Name two beneficial uses of bacteria.
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3-1 List the metric units of measurement that are used for microorganisms. How long is it in nanometers?
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3-2 Diagram the path of light through a compound microscope.
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Through what lenses does light pass in a compound microscope?
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3-3 Define total magnification and resolution. What does it mean when a microscope has a resolution of 0.2 nm?
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3-4 Identify a use for darkfield, phase-contrast, differential interference contrast, fluorescence, confocal, two-photon, and scanning acoustic microscopy, and compare each with brightfield illumination.
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How are brightfield, darkfield, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopy similar?
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3-5 Explain how electron microscopy differs from light microscopy.
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Why do electron microscopes have greater resolution than light microscopes?
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3-6 Identify one use for the TEM, SEM, and scanned-probe microscopes.
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For what is TEM used? SEM?
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Scanned-probe microscopy?
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3-7 Differentiate an acidic dye from a basic dye. Why doesn't a negative stain color a cell?
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3-8 Explain the purpose of simple staining. Why is fixing necessary for most staining procedures?
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3-9 List the steps in preparing a Gram stain
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Describe the appearance of gram-positive and gram-negative cells after each step.
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Why is the Gram stain so useful?
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3-10 Compare and contrast the Gram stain and the acid-fast stain.
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Which stain would be used to identify microbes in the genera Mycobacterium and Nocardia?
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3-11 Explain why each of the following is used: capsule stain, endospore stain, flagella stain.
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How do unstained endospores appear?
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4-1 Compare and contrast the overall cell structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Compare: both contain nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, and carbs; same chemical reactions to metabolize food, build proteins, and store energy.
Contrast: structure of cell walls and membrane, and absence of organelles
What is the main feature that distinguishes prokaryotes from eukaryotes?
Prokaryotes: DNA not enclosed, singular arranged chromosomes, DNA not associated with histones, lack membrane-enclosed organelles, cell wall contain polysaccharide peptidoglycan, divide by binary fission
Eukaryotes: DNA in nucleus, muti chromosomal, histones, membrane-enclosed organelles, cell wall simple, mitosis
4-2 Identify the three basic shapes of bacteria.
coccus- round, bacillus- rod shaped, spiral- spiral
How would you be able to identify streptococci through a microscope?
strepto- chains, cocci- round
4-3 Describe the structure and function of the glycocalyx.
sugar coat surrounding a cell. made of viscous (sticky), gelatinous polymer that is externa to the cell wall. composed of polysaccharide, polypeptide, or both.
-organized and firmly attached to cell wall: capsule
-unorganized and loosely attached: slime layer
Why are bacterial capsules medically important?
capsules protect pathogenic bacteria from phagocytosis by the cells of the host
4-4 Differentiate flagella, axial filaments, fimbriae, and pili.
Flagella: prokaryotic cells; long filamentous appendages that propel bacteria
Axial filaments: found on spirochetes; bundles of fibrils that arise at the ends of the cell beneath an outer sheath and spiral around the cell/spiral motion
Fimbriae: involved in forming biofilms; help bacteria adhere to epithelial surfaces
Pili: motility and DNA transfer (conjugation)
How do bacteria move?
Flagella, Axial filaments, fimbriae, and pili
4-5 Compare and contrast the cell walls of gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, acid-fast bacteria, archaea, and mycoplasmas.
Gram positive: many layers of peptidoglycan, thick, rigid structure; contain teichoic acids
Gram negative: thin layer of peptidoglycan, outer membrane made of lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, and phospholipids.
Acid-fast bacteria: high concentration of hydrophobic waxy lipid (mycolic acid), thin layer of peptidoglycan
Archaea: may have no cell wall, or unusual walls of polysaccharides and proteins- no peptidoglycan.
Mycoplasmas: no cell wall
Why are drugs that target cell wall synthesis useful?
Bacterial cell walls are made of different material as Eukaryotic cells
4-6 Compare and contrast archaea and mycoplasmas.
...
Why are mycoplasmas resistant to antibiotics that interfere with cell wall synthesis?
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4-7 Differentiate protoplast, spheroplast, and L form.
Protoplast: a gram-positive bacterium or plant cell treated to remove the cell wall
Spheroplast: gram-negative bacterium treated to damage the cell wall; spherical cell
L form: prokaryotic cell that lack a cell wall; can return to walled state
How do protoplasts differ from L forms?
L forms can return to a walled state
4-8 Describe the structure, chemistry, and functions of the prokaryotic plasma membrane.
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Which agents can cause injury to the bacterial plasma membrane?
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4-9 Define simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, active transport, and group translocation.
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How are simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion similar? How are they different?
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4-10 Identify the functions of the nucleoid and ribosomes.
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Where is the DNA located in a prokaryotic cell?
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4-11 Identify the functions of four inclusions. What is the general function of inclusions?
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4-12 Describe the functions of endospores, sporulation, and endospore germination.
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Under what conditions do endospores form?
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4-13 Differentiate prokaryotic and eukaryotic flagella.
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4-14 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell walls and glycocalyxes.
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4-15 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic plasma membranes.
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4-16 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cytoplasms.
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Identify at least one significant difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic flagella
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and cilia, cell walls, plasma membranes, and cytoplasm.
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4-17 Compare the structure and function of eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes.
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The antibiotic erythromycin binds with the 50S portion of a ribosome.
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What effect does this have on a prokaryotic cell? On a eukaryotic cell?
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4-18 Define organelle. Compare the structure of the nucleus of a eukaryote and the nucleoid of a prokaryote.
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4-19 Describe the functions of the nucleus,
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Describe the functions of the endoplasmic reticulum,
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Describe the functions of the Golgi complex,
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Describe the functions of the lysosomes
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Describe the functions of the vacuoles
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Describe the functions of the mitochondria
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Describe the functions of the chloroplasts
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Describe the functions of the peroxisomes
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Describe the functions of the centrosomes.
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How do rough and smooth ER compare structurally and functionally?
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4-20 Discuss evidence that supports the endosymbiotic theory of eukaryotic evolution.
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Which three organelles are not associated with the Golgi complex? What does this suggest about their origin?
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