Biology of the Mind
Terms in this set (51)
Dendrites transmit messages _____ the cell body and axons transmit messages _____ the cell body.
TOWARD, AWAY FROM
In addition to its role in learning and memory, acetylcholine also controls:
An axon transmits messages _____ the cell body and a dendrite transmits messages toward the cell body.
A drug that inhibits a neurotransmitter's release is called a(n) _____.
Given the proportional amounts of the different types of neurons, the type of neuron you would be LEAST likely to worry about if you lost 100,000 of them would be a(n)_____.
Information processing in the body involves neurons communicating with each other at their:
A neuron will fire if excitatory signals are stronger than _____ signals.
Milton has been having considerable trouble with his short-term memory. His family has noticed a number of mistakes Milton has been making, such as leaving doors unlocked, getting lost in the neighborhood, and forgetting family member's names. It appears that the _____-producing neurons are deteriorating.
Axons are to speaking as dendrites are to _____.
xons are to _____ as dendrites are to hearing.
If speed were of the essence, which of the following information processing systems would you choose to make simple decisions for you?
A neuron's reaction is a(n) _____ response.
ALL OR NOTHING
If ACh transmission is blocked, we are _____.
A _____ is a bushy, branching extension of a neuron that receives messages and conducts impulses toward the cell body.
Santiago Ramón y Cajal referred to _____ as "protoplasmic kisses."
The "decision" as to whether a neuron fires or not can be described as most similar to:
THE MAJORITY RULES
Natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control are called _____.
You are watching your favorite television program and you see a commercial for a new medication. It states that the medication can alleviate depression. "Since depression is a chemical imbalance, new Venlafaxine extended release can help with mood, sleep, arousal, and alertness by working on the two key neurotransmitters involved in depression." These two neurotransmitters are _____ and norepinephrine.
Who discovered the synapse?
SIR CHARLES SHERRINGTON
People who suffer from schizophrenia have, among other things, an excess of dopamine. Therefore, medications used to treat this disorder are dopamine:
Motor and sensory neurons together comprise the:
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM/PNS
These chemical messengers are mostly manufactured by the endocrine glands, and they can influence our interest in sex, food, and aggression.
The peripheral nervous system consists of:
SENSORY & MOTOR NEURONS
The _____ gland secretes many different hormones, some of which affect other glands.
"Neurotransmitter" is to "synaptic gap" as "hormone" is to _____.
Bladder contractions are controlled by the _____.
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
While listening to operatic solos, musicians process the lyrics and the tunes in separate brain areas. This most clearly illustrates the functioning of different _____.
A woman is paralyzed below the waist following an accident. Though her genitals do not respond to erotic images, she does experience an increase in vaginal lubrication in response to genital stimulation. She has most clearly suffered damage to her _____.
Ron is drinking water and soda in large quantities, urinating frequently, is always hungry, and is complaining of feeling sick at times. He is diagnosed with Type II diabetes. There is most likely an abnormality with his _____.
In terms of your heartbeat, digestion, and glandular functioning, your body is a fairly well oiled machine that works even when you are asleep. This is possible because of your:
In terms of their length of effect, endocrine messages last far longer than _____ messages.
A woman who is born without functioning _____ may need sex hormone replacement.
This part of the peripheral nervous system controls the self-regulated action of the internal organs and glands.
The _____ nervous system stimulates ejaculation in the male.
A medical equipment company is thinking of expanding by developing lie-detection machines that measure perspiration, cardiovascular, and respiration changes. Their research should focus on the _____.
SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
The _____ nervous system consumes energy, while the parasympathetic nervous system conserves energy.
A firefighter wakes in the middle of the night to the sound of an alarm. It is likely that her _____ have released epinephrine and norepinephrine.
"It functions like a remote control that moves a robotic arm." This analogy best describes the function of the _____.
SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
The correct order of the feedback system that reveals the intimate connection of the nervous and endocrine systems is the brain, pituitary, other glands, _____, brain.
Your wife wakes you from your peaceful slumber to tell you she heard a noise. As you slowly get up to investigate, your heart begins to race, your mouth is dry, and you begin to sweat. Clearly your _____ has been activated.
SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will thereby increase the concentration of serotonin molecules in the:
A drug that blocks the reuptake of a particular neurotransmitter is called a(n):
A drug that inhibits a neurotransmitter's release is called a(n):
In terms of your heartbeat, digestion, and glandular functioning, your body is a fairly well-oiled machine that works even when you are asleep. This is possible due to your:
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
The work groups that neurons cluster into are known as:
Given the proportional amounts of the different types of neurons, which type of neuron would you be LEAST likely to worry about if you lost 100,000 of them?
The correct order of the feedback system which reveals the intimate connection of the nervous and endocrine systems is:
BRAIN, PITUITARY GLAND, OTHER GLANDS, HORMONES, BRAIN
People who engage in extreme sports often do this to feel the rush of epinephrine and norepinephrine. This rush comes from the:
After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth, coordinated manner. It is likely that she has suffered damage to her:
Dr. Hauser is a neurosurgeon working with patients who have major epileptic seizures. What part of the brain might Dr. Hauser sever to help reduce his patients' seizures?
The limbic system structure that influences aggression is called the: