78 terms

Amlung Anatomy Midterm

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Anatomy
_________ is a term derived from two greek words meaning "cutting apart"
Physiology
_______ means the study of the funtion of living organisms and their parts
Pathology
______ is the scientific study of disease
Transverse plane
a ______ section cuts the body or any of parts into upper and lower portions
Frontal plane
A ______ section cuts the body or any of parts into front and back portions
Sagittal plane
A _______section cuts the body or any of parts into left and right portions
Sagittal
If the body is cut into equal right and left sides, the cut is called a ________ section or plane
Anterior
Opposite of posterior
Deep
Opposite of superficial
Lateral
Opposite of medial
Distal
Opposite of proximal
Superior
Opposite of inferior
Matter
____ is anything that occupies space and has mass
Atoms
Molecules are made up of particles called ________
Protons
Positively charged particles within the nucleus of an atom are called ________
Compound
Substances with molecules having more than one kind of atom are called ______
Ionic
A(n) _______ chemical bond occurs when atoms share electrons
Organic
Molecules that have a carbon-carbon bond in them are classified as _______ compounds
Dehydration synthesis
When water is used to build up small molecules into larger molecules, the process is called _______
Acids
________ are solutions that have an excess hydrogen ions
Buffers
The blood contains chemicals called _____ that maintains a stable pH
Electrons are gained or lost
An ion is formed when ________
Organelles
______ is a term that refers to small structures inside the cell; it means "little organs"
Active transport, passive transport
______ is the Movement of substances across a cell membrane using cell energy whereas ________ is the Movement of substances across a cell membrane without using cell energy
Transcription
____ is the process in protein synthesis that uses the information in mRNA to build a protein molecule
Genome
_______ is the total genetic information packaged in a cell
Anaphase
_____ is the stage of mitosis where the chromosomes move away from the center of the cell
DNA replication
______ is the phase of cell growth and reproduction does the DNA replicate
Metaphase
_____ is the stage of mitosis where the chromosomes align at the center of the cell
Prophase
_____ is the stage of mitosis where the chromatin condense into chromosomes
Telophase
_____ is the stage of mitosis where the nuclear envelope and nuclei reappear
Hypertrophy
_____ refers to an increase in cell size
Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous
Four main tissues of the body
Etiology
Cause of disease
idiopathic disease
a disease that develops without a known or apparent cause
communicable disease
a disease that is spread from one host to another
epidemic
A widespread outbreak of an infectious disease.
pandemic disease
worldwide epidemic
Fungus
Causes mycotic infections
Bacteria
Can be bacilli or cocci shaped
Virus
Intracellular parasites made up of DNA and RNA and surrounded by a protein coat
Sebum
Oil produced by the sebaceous glands
Keratin
Unique waterproof protein
Medullary cavity
Hollow area in the shaft of bone contains marrow
Osteocytes
Structural units of compact bone
Lacunae
small cavities in bone that contain osteocytes
Osteoclasts
Bone-resorting cells
Osteoblasts
Bone forming cells
Ossification
Process of forming bone
Ligaments
Connects bone to bone
osteoarthritis
Wearing away of articulate cartilage
Periosteum
Fibrous membrane that covers all of long bone except the joint
Epiphysis
End of a long bone
Diaphysis
The shaft of a long bone
gouty arthritis
a type of arthritis characterized by deposits of uric acid in the joints
insertion
muscle attachment that moves
Origin
Muscle attachment to the stationary bone
Actin
Protein that makes up thin myofilaments
Myosin
Protein that makes up thick myofilaments
Central nervous system
Contains the brain and spinal cord
Dendrites
conduct impulses toward the cell body
Axon
Conduct ts impulses away from the cell body
Microglia
Glia cells that help form the blood-brain barrier
medulla oblongata
the posterior part of the brain that controls the rate of breathing and other autonomic functions
Hypothalamus
brain region controlling the pituitary gland
Thalamus
relays messages between lower brain centers and cerebral cortex
Cerebellum
A large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills.
Cerebrum
Area of the brain responsible for all voluntary activities of the body
multiple sclerosis
caused by damage to myelin sheath
Parkinson's disease
Leads to shaking and difficulty with walking, movement, and coordination
CVA
Stroke
Epilepsy
Seizure disorder
Taste
The gustatory cells are involved with ________ sense
Papillae
Place where taste buds can be found on a much larger structures on the tongue
Myopia
Nearsightedness
Astigmatism
Irregular curvature of the cornea or lens
Strabismus
Cross eyed
Meniere disease
disorder of the inner ear with acute attacks of tinnitus, vertigo, and hearing loss
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